7_From_basic_to_cortical__behavior

7_From_basic_to_cortical__behavior - From basic to cortical...

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Unformatted text preview: From basic to cortical behavior Inhibitio n e.g. motor behavior Excitatio n Inhibitio n Excitatio Grab with right n arm; kick with Prefrontal Frontal right foot Temporal Position with respect to right side of body Parietal Look Motor output Motor output Executive functions Occipital Executive functions Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Learning & memory Learning & memory Attention & concentration Attention & concentration Sensory input Level 1 Sensory input 1 Motor output Level 1: Sensory Functions Executive functions e.g. image of an object primary visual cortex => association cortex Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Learning & memory Level 2 Attention & concentration Sensory input Motor output Level 2: Attention, Concentration 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Executive functions Focused attention Sustained attention (over extended period of time) Selective attention (while filtering out irrelevant stimuli) Divided attention: attend to two stimuli at the same time Alternating attention: shift back and forth Irrelevant info that is not inhibited, can interfere with memory. If information is not attended to, it can not be memorized. Important to know when there is an attention deficit; can be mistaken for a memory deficit. Language skills Level 3 Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Learning & memory Attention & concentration Sensory input 2 Level 3: Learning, Memory Learning: the process whereby behavior changes by experience. Memory is a prerequisite. Different types of learning: -Not-associative (at a synaptic level): - sensibilisation (amplification) - habituation -Associative: - conditional reflex: - classical conditioning (S=>R; Pavlov) - operant conditioning (reinforcement) - observational learning (imitation) PS unconditional reflexes are innate (not learned): instinct (e.g. the ducs of Lorenz) •Explicite learning •Implicite learning (no need of consciousness) -Habituation and sensibilisation (by repetition) -Classical conditioning: learning due to association of a conditional (food) stimulus and a non-conditional (bell) stimulus Implicite (procedural) memory: memory for specific skills Priming: earlier recognition (and reaction) of a given stimulus if that stimulus has already been detected before (perceptual priming). Motor output Memory Processes: R-R-R-(R) Registration - Retention - Retrieval (Reproduction) Memory Processes Executive functions Rehearsal Sight Sound Level 4 Elaboration and Organization Smell Sensory Memory Attention Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Retrieval Taste Touch Learning & memory Lost Lost Attention & concentration Control processes: attention, rehearsal, coding, retrieval Sensory input 3 Motor output Level 4: Language Skills Executive functions Language: cortical function dominant hemisphere (mostly left) Level 5 Aphasia: language deficit caused by brain damage – expressive A. (Brocca): reduced ability to communicate verbally or in writing – receptive A. (Wernicke): problem with comprehending spoken or written language Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Learning & memory Speech: motor act of speeking Attention & concentration Sensory input Motor output 5. Visuospatial, visuoconstructive skills • Right hemisphere, esp. parietal cortex, is predominantly used Level 6 Executive functions Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Learning & memory Attention & concentration Sensory input 4 Level 7 6. Executive Functions Motor output Executive functions • Pre-frontal functions: (DLPFC) - working memory - plan, initiate, sequence, monitor, and stop complex behavior Language skills => abstract reasoning, logical analysis, concept formation, flexible thinking Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Learning & memory Attention & concentration Sensory input 7. Motor output Premotor cortex Motor cortex Subcortical centers Translation of goals into motor codes, formation of sequential representations The secondary motor cortex (M2) -premotor cortex -supplementary motor area -cingulate motor area DLPFC Simple movements, codes in terms of muscles and movement direction Fine tuning of motor signals, timing of muscular commands => dominant hand stronger by about 10% is involved in the programming of specific patterns of movement after more general instructions from the DLPFC. 5 Two descending motor pathways The primary motor cortex (M1) Execution of movement Premotor cortex => motor cortex • Pyramidal pathway for voluntary movement • Fibers cross to contralateral side in the brainstem Somatopically organized Descending projections to spinal cord (cortico-spinal tract, pyramidal tract) Subcortical centers •Damage => weakness in affected body parts •Stimulation => simple movement • Pathways for postural control and automatic movements (basal ganglia) • Fine tuning, timing of movement (cerebellum) (fibers do not cross the midline) Lower motor neurons (brainstem and spinal cord) Striated muscles Motor behavior: basics Motor output Inhibitio n Excitatio Grab with right n arm; kick with Prefrontal Executive functions Frontal right foot Temporal Position with respect to right side of body Language skills Visuospatial, visuoconstructive & manipulospatial skills Parietal Learning & memory Look Occipital Attention & concentration Sensory input 6 ...
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