10_Up_to_consciousness

Visceral cues or thoughts more generally attention

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Unformatted text preview: re generally, attention can be defined as an ability to - focus (selective attention) and - maintain interest in a given task managing distractions (vigilance). 5 Attention Attention Neurobiology of attention: Different approches Some leading theories Neural structures involved in attention Mesulam, 1981 Attention Attention “conscious control” SAS selects according to -level of activation, which is determined by trigger conditions of the schema -lateral inhibition / excitation between schemata. The Norman & Shallice model (1986) The central executive in the working memory model manages attention The Baddeley model 6 (NOR) (dopamine) Attention DLPFC Supervisory Attentional System ~ Central Executive ~ executive function ~ prefrontal cortex ~ DLPFC Sup. colliculus Ant. system: detection and response-selection (overt): DLPFC, ACC Post. system: automatic allocation of spatial attention (covert) thalamus (pulvinar thalami): engages attention to new location PPC: disengages attention colliculus superior: displaces attention Crevits, 2005 Selective Attention The Posner-Peterson model Selective Attention • Attention can modulate the efficacy of information processing • Attention can be selectively directed to various stimulus features LIP: lateral intraparietal sulcus MT: medial temporal cortex Selection requires top-down feedback about what is important. Parietal neurons increase activity in (focused) selective spatial attention. Studied by neurophysiologic (ERP), metabolic (PET) and cellular (single unit) methods Science, 2007, 316, 1612-5 7 Attention Brain regions involved in attention ARAS: alertness and arousal superior colliculus: automatically orienting attention to a particular location thalamus: - selection of incoming information - activation of the cortex posterior parietal lobe: - spatial frame of reference - binding features together (eg. color and form) cingulate cortex: - selection of motor responses - processing attentionally demanding tasks prefrontal cortex: - top-down attentional control - motor aspects of attentional control Finally…consciousness: a neurobiological approach Crevits, 2006 The concept of “consciousness” has different meanings… Example: in sleep, we are unconscious (1), but our experiences in dreams are vividly conscious (2). Consciousness takes two forms:...
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