Kathleen's part in .pdf

Kathleen's part in .pdf - 1 Chapter on Molecular biology of...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Chapter on Molecular biology of the Neuron Dr. Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck Dr. Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck Laboratorium voor Eukaryotische Genexpressie en SignaalTransductie Vakgroep Moleculaire Biologie K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35 9000 Gent 09/264.51.35 [email protected] 2 References – Molecular Biology of the Cell • Chapter 11: membrane transport of small molecules and the ionic basis of membrane excitability – Neuron • Part II: cell and molecular biology of the neuron • Part III: elementary interactions between neurons: synaptic transmission – Understanding G protein-coupled receptors and their role in the CNS by Menelas, Pangalos and Davies – G protein-coupled receptors by George Vauquelin and Brengt von Mentzer Content: Molecular Biology of the Neuron Ion Channels Membrane Potential Synaptic transmission Dopamine 3 Ion Channels 1. Introduction Neuronal signaling depends on rapid changes in the electrical potential difference across nerve cell membranes. Individual sensory cells can generate changes in membrane potential in response to very small stimuli: receptor in the eye respond to a single photon of light; olfactory neurons detect a single molecule of odorant and hair cells in the inner ear respond to tiny movements of atomic dimensions. Signaling in the brain depends on the ability of nerve cells to respond to these small stimuli by producing rapid changes in the electrical potential difference across nerve cell membranes. During an action potential the membrane potential changes quickly. These rapid changes in membrane potential are mediated by ion channels, a class of integral membrane proteins found in all cells of the body. The ion channels of nerve cells are optimally tuned for rapid information processing. The channels of nerve cells are also heterogeneous, so that different types of channels in different parts of the nervous system can carry out specific signaling tasks. Because of this selective distribution of finely tuned functional elements, malfunctioning of ion channels in nerve and skeletal muscle can cause a wide variety of neurological diseases. Diseases due to ion channel malfunction are not limited to the brain. Cystic fibrosis and certain types of cardiac arrhythmia, are also caused by ion channel malfunction. Moreover, ion channels are often the site of action of drugs, poisons, or toxins. Thus ion channels have crucial roles in both the physiology and the pathophysiology of the nervous system. In this chapter we shall be concerned with the properties of the neuron that give it the ability to generate signals in the form of synaptic and action potentials. The initiation of a signal depends on ion channels in the cell membrane that open in response to changes in potential across the membrane and to neurotransmitters released by other nerve cells....
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This note was uploaded on 05/28/2010 for the course WE CHMOBI0000 taught by Professor Geertvanloo during the Spring '10 term at Ghent University.

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Kathleen's part in .pdf - 1 Chapter on Molecular biology of...

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