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1735518Fd01 - Molecular signaling in the neuron General...

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1 1 Molecular signaling in the neuron General principles of cell signaling Ion channels Membrane potential Synaptic transmission • Dopamine 2 Introduction to synapses Term synapse introduced in early 1900’s: site of contact between neurons and thought to serve for communication first histological description by Ramon y Cajal
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2 3 Introduction to synapses Average neuron forms about 1.000 synaptic connections and receives input from as many as 10.000 up to 100.000 inputs Two basic forms of synaptic transmission: 4 Introduction to synapses Average neuron forms about 1.000 synaptic connections and receives input from as many as 10.000 up to 100.000 inputs Two basic forms of synaptic transmission: Electrical synapses Depolarizing signals No inhibitory actions No long-lasting changes Chemical synapses More variable signaling
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3 5 Synapses are either electrical or chemical 6 Synapses are either electrical or chemical
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4 7 Electrical synapses provide instantaneous signal transmission Fig 10-2 8 Electrical synapses provide instantaneous signal transmission Advantages: -very rapid: once depolarisation in postsynaptic cell reaches threshold, action potential is generated even if threshold is not reached still depolarisation of postsynaptic membrane -synchronous firing of several neurons through gap junction coupling -metabolic signaling possible Disadvantages: passive electrotonic transmission, no possibility to modulate signal Mediated through gap junctions Allows rapid and synchronous firing of interconnected cells
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5 9 Electrical synapses provide instantaneous signal transmission 10
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6 11 12 Chemical synapses depend on the release of neurotransmitter Terminology: -synaptic cleft -neurotransmitter -presynaptic terminals -synaptic vesicles -active zone -exocytosis Electron microscope autoradiograph
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7 13
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