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BFAE9A0Fd01 - Molecular signaling in the neuron General...

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1 Molecular signaling in the neuron General principles of cell signaling Ion channels Membrane potential Synaptic transmission • Dopamine Molecular signaling in the Neuron Molecular Biology of the Cell Chapter 11: membrane transport of small molecules and the ionic basis of membrane excitability Principles of Neural Science Part II: cell and molecular biology of the neuron Part III: elementary interactions between neurons: synaptic transmission The Brain: a neuroscience primer by Richard Thompson Understanding G protein-coupled receptors and their role in the CNS by Menelas, Pangalos and Davies G protein-coupled receptors by George Vauquelin and Brengt von Mentzer PubMed: articles
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2 General principles of cell signaling Some definitions as we start A signaling cell produces a signal. The signal induces a response in the target cell. Signals are generally referred to as ligands (ligare - to bind). A generic term for a molecule that binds to specific sites on a protein. Ligands that stimulate pathways are called agonists. Ligands that inhibit pathways are called antagonists. General principles of cell signaling There are five types of receptor 1. Intracellular receptors. 2. Receptors that are ion channels. 3. Receptors with intrinsic enzyme activity. 4. Receptors linked to protein kinases. 5. Receptors coupled to target proteins via a G protein. Two types of receptors important in neuronal signaling 1. Receptors that are ion channels. 2. Receptors coupled to target proteins via a G protein: GPCRs
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3 Ion channels Major function of neurons: communication has to be fast and travel long distances different types of neurons communicate different kind of information still, all information transmitted under same form: changes in electrical potential across plasma membrane of neurons ( barb2right change in membrane potential = change in charge difference across the membrane (volt = V) Changes in electrical potential mediated via specialized class of proteins: ion channels Two classes of ion channels -Resting channels barb2right generate the resting potential barb2right underlie the passive properties of neurons -Gated channels barb2right generate the action potential barb2right responsible for the active currents barb2right voltage-gated, ligand-gated and mechanically-gated channels
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4 Ion channels: properties Three important properties of ion channels -Conduct ions -Fast: up to 100 million ions/second through one channel -Recognize and select specific ions -Open and close in response to specific electrical, mechanical or chemical signals Physical chemistry of ions in solution •PM highly impermeable to ions, energetically unfavorable for an ion to lose its water ions and move into hydrophobic layer •Specialized pores •Ion + shell of water = size
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5 Selectivity of ion channels Chemical interactions and molecular sieving K+-leak channels conduct K+ 10.000 times better than Na+ Crystal radius K+: 0.133 nm, while crystal radius Na+: 0.095 nm, so not solely
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