0039000Dd01 - "Cancer stem cells Fiction or Reality Need...

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"Cancer stem cells Fiction or Reality?"
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Jemal et al., 2005 CA Cancer J. Clin Need for better cancer treatment Need for better cancer treatment The worldwide incidence of cancer is set to double from 10 to 20 million over the next two decades and the death rate will increase from six to 10 million Advances in treatment, surgery, radiotherapy and convential cytotoxic chemotherapy have made only modest overall impact on mortality Cures can be achieved in childhood cancers , testicular cancer and lymphoma and improvements in survival rates have been made as a result of adjuvant drug treatment of breast and colorectal cancer. The majority of human cancers are difficult to treat especially in their advanced, metastatic forms
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tumor grows back tumor degenerates Therapeutic predictions of tumor stem cell model rapid growing cells killed kill tumor initiating cells
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Outline of presentation • Introduction • What are stem cells? • Paradigm the Hematopoietic System • Stem cells in epithelial tissues • Cancer stem cells • The Stem Cell origin of cancer • What is the evidence for cancer stem cells in human cancers? • Cancer stem cells challenging the model • Where do cancer stem cells come from? • The implications of human cancer stem cells for therapy • Cancer stem cells: future questions and directions
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What are Stem cells?(I) Self-renewal - when a stem cell divides (usually asymetrically), each daughter cell can either retain its stem cell identity, or can become a progenitor . Stem cells appear to retain capacity for limitless division . Progenitors also called transit amplifying cells have limited proliferative capacity and are committed to terminally differentiate into multiple lineages. Often have high proliferative rates in the short term, whereas most stem cells divide rarely.
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What are Stem cells?(I) Asymmetric versus symetric division
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Not all stem cells are alike! Some stem cells have more potential than others. POTENCY describes this flexibility Totipotent stem cells can form all adult cell types as well as the specialized tissues to support development of the embryo (e.g., the placenta). Pluripotent stem cells can form most or all cell types in the adult. Can be primed to differentiate into an increasing number of cell types in vitro Multipotent stem cells can form multiple types of cells and tissue types. Unipotent stem cells form only one type of specialized cell type. (early embryo ) Stem cell POTENCY (early embryo) Cells of inner cell mass embryonic
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Majority (>99%) of cells in the body are differentiated cells These cells can not divide They have a short life span – (days to weeks) They are constantly being replaced by new cells Adult stem cells are undifferentiated They divide and give rise to heterogenous populations of differentiated cells Very rare - one in a thousand or less In normal tissues the # of cell proliferation = cell death Normal adult tissues are maintained by constant regeneration
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Hematopoietic stem cells ( HSCs
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This note was uploaded on 05/28/2010 for the course WE MOBI000000 taught by Professor Geertberx during the Spring '10 term at Ghent University.

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0039000Dd01 - "Cancer stem cells Fiction or Reality Need...

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