C7A6781Ad01 - The treatment of Human Cancer Demographics...

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The treatment of Human Cancer
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Jemal et al., 2005 CA Cancer J. Clin Demographics and epidemiology of cancer Demographics and epidemiology of cancer
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Demographics and epidemiology of cancer Demographics and epidemiology of cancer
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Need for better cancer treatment Need for better cancer treatment • The worldwide incidence of cancer is set to double from 10 to 20 million over the next two decades and the death rate will increase from six to 10 million • Advances in treatment, surgery, radiotherapy and convential cytotoxic chemotherapy have made only modest overall impact on mortality • Cures can be achieved in childhood cancers , testicular cancer and lymphoma and improvements in survival rates have been made as a result of adjuvant drug treatment of breast and colorectal cancer. • The majority of human cancers are difficult to treat especially in their advanced, metastatic forms
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Translational Research Translational Research Each year , the cancer therapeutic evaluation program (CTEP) at the national cancer institute (NCI) screens over 20.000 potential new anticancer agents using tumour cell assays. The most promising agents are then further evaluated in annimal studies Only 30 new agents are taken to human clinical trials per year. In the US there are over 60 cancer centres encompassing 1700 institutions with over 8000 clinical investigators. Together, over 20.000 patients cancer patients are treated on clinical trials per year using these government-supported mechanisms The food and drug administration (FDA ) its purpose is to ensure the safety and efficacy of new drugs before they are marketed in the US. It takes on average 8.5 years for a drug to go from the laboratory through annimal testing to the completion of clinical trials before it is aproved.
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Structure Structure of of phase phase I, II and III I, II and III clinical clinical trials trials
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Clinical trials Phase I, II and III Clinical trials Phase I, II and III Phase I: determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) analysis of pharmacokinetics (relation between time, plasma concentration, absorption, distribution, excretion), pharmacodynamics (plasma concentration and drug effect on patient Phase II: The dose level below which 33% of patients treated experienced dose limiting toxicity – eliminate those agents with low efficiency Phase III: The agent is compared to a standard treatment to determine the relative merits of treatment
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Mechanism of action of cancer Mechanism of action of cancer Chemotherapy (I) Chemotherapy (I) Antimetabolites – Compounds that are structurally similar to naturally occuring substances such as vitamins, purins, pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and amino acids – Antimetabolites interact with the cellular function in one of the following ways • Substituting for a metabolite that is normally incorporated into a key molecule such as DNA, RNA • Competing with a normal metabolite for occupation of a catalytic site of a key enzyme • Competing with a normal metabolite that acts at an important enzyme regulatory site or receptor – Most antimetabolites have their greatest activity during S phase
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C7A6781Ad01 - The treatment of Human Cancer Demographics...

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