FEAC8749d01 - The Hallmarks of Cancer Molecular Oncology...

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The Hallmarks of The Hallmarks of Cancer Cancer Molecular Oncology 2009-2010
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Cancer a complex disease 1960’s: the “War on Cancer” was declared and a cure was promised in a decade. What stopped us cold? We Fought Cancer…And Cancer Won. Cancer is not a single disease with a single cause. September, 2008
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Cancers occurs with different frequencies in different human populations (I) • Global cancer incidence – WHO estimates that yearly aprox. 10 x 10 6 obtain cancer • Europe cancer incidence – EUCAN netwerk estimates that yearly aprox. 1.5 x 10 6 persons obtain cancer
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Cancers occurs with different frequencies in different human populations (II) • Belgium cancer incidence – The Belgian Cancer Registry estimates that aprox. 55.000 persons yearly obtain cancer II. Lung 19.57% V.Stomach 2.91% III. Colon 12.07% IV. Blaas 6.0 % I. Prostaat 23.47% Total= 21.855 53.30% I. Breast 34.63% III.Lung 4.74% II. Colon 14.50% IV. Ovarium 4.25% I. Cervix 2.77% Total= 19.142 46.70% Belgium:1998
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Global cancer incidence in Developed and Developing countries
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Environmental and lifestyle causes of cancer -carcinogenic effects of tobacco -diet and overweight -reproductive and hormonal factors -environmental carcinogens -bacteria and viruses
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Geography and occupation influence cancer risk Urban industrial pollution dietary fat intake sedentary lifestyle occupational hazards Rural sun exposure accessibility of medical care meat consumption toxic chemicals from fertilizers
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VEGETABLES ARE MUCH HEALTHIER, REALLY Lifestyle Dietary fat intake is a risk factor for many cancers Carcinogenic effect of tobacco
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The complex proces of cancer
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The multiple strands of cancer
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Cancer is a genetic disease (I)
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The Hallmarks of Cancer Introduction Cancer is a disease involving dynamic changes in the genome – foundation is the discovery of mutations – Dominant gain of function – ONCOGENES – Recessive loss of function – TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENES – Both classes of genes have been discovered through their alteration in human and animal cancer and their elicitation in cancer phenotypes in experimental models
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Cancer is a genetic disease (II) Gain of function genetic events Loss of function Genetic events
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Cancer a Complex Disease beyond Measure? Cancer a complex disease - The worldwide cancer incidence ~ 10 million cases/year - minimal 100 different types of cancer A conceptual change in cancer research is appearing – The complexity of cancer in terms of a small number of underlying principles • Acquired capabilities – rules that govern the transformation of normal cells in to malignant tumor cells • The vast catalog of cancer cell genotypes is a manifestation of six essential alterations (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2000, Cell)
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Acquired Capabilities of Cancer Most/all cancers acquire the same set of functional capabilities during their progression
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Cell Regulatory Network Deregulated in Cancer Oncogenes and tumor suppressor proteins are in purple
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Tumors as Complex Tissues Cancer research has been
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  • Spring '10
  • GeertBerx
  • Squamous cell carcinoma, Malignant tumor cells, cancer incidence, Global cancer incidence, cells Benign Malignant

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FEAC8749d01 - The Hallmarks of Cancer Molecular Oncology...

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