1999 Human Sciences Press, Inc.
Community Mental Health Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4, August 1999
Transformational and Transactional
Leadership Skills for
Mental Health Teams
Patrick W. Corrigan, Psy.D.
Andrew N. Garman, Psy.D.
Many treatments for persons with severe mental illness are provided by
mental health teams. Team members work better when led by effective leaders. Re-
search conducted by organizational psychologists, and validated on mental health
teams, have identified a variety of skills that are useful for these leaders. Bass (1990,
1997) identified two sets of especially important skills related to transformational and
transactional leadership. Leaders using transformational skills help team members to
view their work from more elevated perspectives and develop innovative ways to deal
with work-related problems. Skills related to transformational leadership promote in-
spiration, intellectual stimulation, individual consideration, participative decision
making, and elective delegation. Mental health and rehabilitation teams must not
only develop creative and innovative programs, they must maintain them over time as
a series of leader-team member transactions. Transactional leadership skills include
goal-setting, feedback, and reinforcement strategies which help team members main-
tain effective programs.
This study was made possible in part by grants from the U. S. Department of Education
(H263A50006) and the Illinois Office of Human Services.
Patrick W. Corrigan is affiliated with the University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric Reha-
bilitation. Andrew N. Garman is affiliated with the Illinois Institute of Technology.
Address correspondence to Patrick Corrigan, University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric Re-
habilitation, 7230 Arbor Drive, Tinley Park, IL 60477; e-mail pcorriga
Anyone wishing to have manuscripts reviewed in the areas of administration, management
quality assurance, managed care, and standards of care should contact Paul S. Sherman, Ph.D.,
Editor, Administrative Update, 4530 S. Independence Trail, Evergreen, Colorado 80439 or sub-
mit the material to David L. Cutler, M.D., Dept. of Psychiatry, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road,
Portland, Oregon 97201-3098.