Chapter 2 Organizational Structure
Organizing, the process of structuring human and physical resources
in order to accomplish organizational objectives, involves dividing tasks
into jobs, specifying the appropriate department for each job, deter-
mining the optimum number of jobs in each department, and dele-
gating authority within and among departments. One of the most crit-
ical challenges facing lodging managers today is the development of
a responsive organizational structure that is committed to quality.
The framework of jobs and departments that make up any organ-
ization must be directed toward achieving the organization’s objec-
tives. In other words, the structure of a lodging business must be con-
sistent with its strategy.
Managers give structure to a hotel and lodging through job spe-
cialization, organization, and establishment of patterns of authority
and span of control.
There are as many degrees of job specialization within the lodging in-
dustry as there are types of organizations—and, as you learned in chap-
ter 1, there are many types of organizations. One extreme is the case
of a hotel where the owner/operator is responsible for checking in
the guests, servicing their needs, taking care of the housekeeping for
the guest rooms, maintaining the building and grounds, and check-
ing out the guests. There is, to be sure, much to recommend this
method of work. It is rewarding to have total control over a project
from beginning to end, and many people find it motivating to see the
results of their efforts. However, as the demand for additional prod-
ucts or services increases (i.e., if additional rooms are added or an-
other hotel is purchased), it becomes more and more difficult for an
individual to do his or her job well. One benefit of the increased work-
load is increased revenue, which would enable the individual hotel op-
erator to add housekeeping staff, one or more front desk agents to
check in and check out the additional guests, and engineering and
maintenance personnel to care for the building and grounds.
As a general rule, specialization increases worker productivity and