nomenclature - Short Summary of IUPAC Nomenclature of...

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Short Summary of IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds Introduction The purpose of the IUPAC system of nomenclature is to establish an international standard of naming compounds to facilitate communication. The goal of the system is to give each structure a unique and unambiguous name, and to correlate each name with a unique and unambiguous structure. I. Fundamental Principle IUPAC nomenclature is based on naming a molecule’s longest chain of carbons connected by single bonds, whether in a continuous chain or in a ring. All deviations, either multiple bonds or atoms other than carbon and hydrogen, are indicated by prefixes or suffixes according to a specific set of priorities. II. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes Alkanes are the family of saturated hydrocarbons, that is, molecules containing carbon and hydrogen connected by single bonds only. These molecules can be in continuous chains (called linear or acyclic), or in rings (called cyclic or alicyclic). The names of alkanes and cycloalkanes are the root names of organic compounds. Beginning with the five-carbon alkane, the number of carbons in the chain is indicated by the Greek or Latin prefix. Rings are designated by the prefix “cyclo”. (In the geometrical symbols for rings, each apex represents a carbon with the number of hydrogens required to fill its valence.) CH 4 methane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 10 CH 3 dodecane CH 3 CH 3 ethane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 11 CH 3 tridecane CH 3 CH 2 CH 3 propane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 12 CH 3 tetradecane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 2 CH 3 butane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 18 CH 3 icosane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 3 CH 3 pentane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 19 CH 3 henicosane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 4 CH 3 hexane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 20 CH 3 docosane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 5 CH 3 heptane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 21 CH 3 tricosane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 6 CH 3 octane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 28 CH 3 triacontane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 7 CH 3 nonane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 29 CH 3 hentriacontane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 8 CH 3 decane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 38 CH 3 tetracontane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 9 CH 3 undecane CH 3 [CH 2 ] 48 CH 3 pentacontane cyclooctane cycloheptane cyclohexane cyclopentane cyclobutane cyclopropane C C C H H H H H H
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III. Nomenclature of Molecules Containing Substituents and Functional Groups A. Priorities of Substituents and Functional Groups LISTED HERE FROM HIGHEST TO LOWEST PRIORITY, except that the substituents within Group C have equivalent priority. Family of Compound Alkene Alkyne Structure Prefix -------- -------- Suffix -ene -yne Suffix -oic acid (-carboxylic acid) -al (carbaldehyde) -one -ol -amine Prefix carboxy- oxo- (formyl) oxo- hydroxy- amino- Structure Family of Compound Carboxylic Acid Aldehyde Ketone Alcohol Amine R C O OH C H O R R C O R O H N R R C C C C Group A—Functional Groups Indicated By Prefix Or Suffix Group B—Functional Groups Indicated By Suffix Only Group C— Substituents Indicated by Prefix Only Substituent Structure Prefix Suffix Alkyl (see list below) R alkyl- ---------- Alkoxy R O alkoxy- ---------- Halogen F fluoro- ---------- Cl chloro- ---------- Br bromo-
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This note was uploaded on 05/29/2010 for the course CHEM 215 taught by Professor Koreeda during the Winter '07 term at University of Michigan.

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nomenclature - Short Summary of IUPAC Nomenclature of...

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