Lipid Structure - Biochemistry 452/Lipids Structure I....

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Biochemistry 452/Lipids Structure Pernecky I. Introduction A. Classes of Lipids 1. Fatty acids (hydrocarbons + carboxylic acid) fig. 11-6 2. Fatty acid esters fig. 11-6 a. Waxes b. Glycerides (glycerol backbone) (1) Simple (fats and oils) (2) Phosphoglycerides 3. Sphingolipids (sphingosine backbone/N-acyl fatty acid) fig. 11-6 4. Steroids (Isoprene derivative) B. Characteristics: Structurally diverse, but all considerably nonpolar . II. Fatty Acids A. Biological importance 1. Energy rich source NADH/FADH 2 2. Integral component in biological membranes (and lipoproteins). 3. Precursors to cellular messengers: Arachidonic acid metabolized to form Prostaglandins/Leukotrienes B. Structure Table 11-1 1. Carboxylic acid attached to unbranched hydrocarbon chain 2. Even number of carbons (14 < N < 20) 3. Varying degrees of saturation a. Unsaturated: cis double bonds (1) Monounsaturated (2) Polyunsaturated (-CH=CH-CH 2 -CH=CH-) b. Saturated C. Nomenclature Table 11-1 1. Symbol - Number of carbons : Number of double bonds 2. Systematic name (C 12 -C 24 ) - Number of carbons/number of double bonds/location of double bonds 3. Common name - no bearing to reality Most common biological fatty acids : Symbol Systematic name Common name ______ Structure________ 16:0 hexadecanoic acid palmitic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH 18:0 ____decanoic acid stearic acid CH 3 (CH 2 ) 16 COOH 18:1
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Lipid Structure - Biochemistry 452/Lipids Structure I....

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