Biology ReView - Chapter 3

Biology ReView - Chapter 3 - Biology ReView Chapter 3 and 4...

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Biology Re V iew Chapter 3 and 4 By: Vaibhav Mokashi Topic Details Biomes A collection of ecosystems all having similar plant life. Tundra Boreal Forest Temperate Deciduous Forest Grasslands Brief Description Northernmost biome Cold desert South of the Tundra Long days Greatest biodiversity (canopy, under-storey, litter) West from Great Lakes and south from Northern Alberta Weather/Climate Small amount of snow Windy Very cold Harsh with rapidly changing temperatures High temperatures in summer Higher temperatures than boreal and tundra Large growing season Higher temperatures than boreal and tundra Soil Short growing season Permafrost permanently frozen layer of soil Active Layer at the top and thawed in summer Acidic soil Fertile soil because of the high temperatures which allow fast decomposition and the decayed leaves rapid decay and high nutrients rich and fertile mostly grass black earth most fertile in the world Precipitation 10-12 cm per year Approx 40 cm per year Approx 100 cm per year 25 to 75 cm per year Not enough to support trees except near small water bodies Characteristic Plants Plants grow close to the ground with fibrous roots which allow adaption to the shifting active layer Conifers deep roots Tamaracks and black spruce Moss and ferns deciduous trees (maple and oak) many shrubs, ferns mostly grass
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Characteristic Animals Caribou 50 species of birds (seed eaters and white winged crossbill) Deer, grey wolves, squirrels squirrels, Great crested flycatcher, insects, mice, deer, weasels, wolves, black bears, wood peckers, Short tailed shrews bison, grasshopper, voles, mice, snakes, hawks, wolves Soil A layer of soil less than 2 m thick provides the nutrients for all plants to grow. Entire civilizations have disappeared because topsoil was lost. What is 1 theory to explain why the civilization of Easter Island disappeared? Islander removed too many trees causing the top coil to erode No soil = no food Layer Name of Layer Description 1 (upper) Litter Partially decomposed leaves or grasses Limits temperatures, soil variations and reduces water loss by evaporation (like a blanket) 2 Topsoil Small particles of rock mixed with decaying play and animal matter Rich supply of minerals/nutrients for plant growth Contains humus black, nutrient rich 3 Subsoil Stones with small organic matter Light because there is little humus Contains iron, aluminum and phosphorus 4 (deepest) Bedrock End of the soil soil rock layer Soil forms over many years when bedrock is attacked by rain, win, frost and snow. Rock is broken down into smaller particles; this is the process of
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Biology ReView - Chapter 3 - Biology ReView Chapter 3 and 4...

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