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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 8 8.1 I N T R O T O T H E R M A L E N E R G Y T ER MS • Heat – kinetic energy of matter at the atomic and molecular level • Brownian motion – all matter at the molecular level move constantly in a random and erratic fashion K I N E T IC MO L ECU L AR T HEORY • Matter is made up of small, constantly moving atoms and groups of atoms (molecules) • Atoms exert forces on each other – if they come to close then they repel – if they are too far apart they are attracted • Distance and strength of force between molecules results in states of matter • Solids – strong forces hold the vibrating particles closely making them stay in a fixed position • Liquid – vibrating atoms are bound together with greater speeds, less rigid • Gases – weak forces of attractions, faster moving particles, t ry to move as far apart as possible • Motion of molecules is due to energy transformations between electrostatic potential energy and particle kinetic energy – total equals thermal energy 8.2 T H E R M A L E N E R G Y A N D T E M P E R A T U R E T ER MS • Temperature – average kinetic energy – measured by a thermometer • Thermal expansion – increase in volume of a substance – the thermal energy increases the atomic and molecular kinetic energies of the particles that make up the substance causing an increase in the distance between atoms • Fahrenheit – ice-salt bath and body temperature to calibrate – freezing...
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