Grade 9 Science

Grade 9 Science - EXAM TOPICS REVIEW BY DAVID KONG AND...

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EXAM TOPICS REVIEW B Y : D AVID K ONG AND V AIBHAV M OKASHI UNIT 1: MATTER (CHEMISTRY) Topic Notes Metal vs. non-metal properties Metal Non-metal High luster Dull Malleable Brittle Good conductors of heat/electricity Do not conduct Physical properties Colour, texture, odour, luster, clarity and taste – characteristic of a substance that is used to identify it. State of matter Gas, Liquid and Solid Hardness Resistance of being scratched/dented Malleability Ability to be hammered or bent into shapes Ductility Drawn out into long, thin wires Melting and Boiling Points Temperature at which substance changes state Crystal Form The solid form of minerals Solubility
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Ability to dissolve Viscosity Thickness Density Amount of matter per volume Chemical properties Describes the behavior of a substance as it becomes a new substance Combustibility Ability to react with oxygen and produce carbon dioxide Reaction with acid Acid is sour and corrosive substance Physical Changes Substance remains as the same substance Change is reversible Melting point/boiling point and density remain the same Proof Same substance different size Same substance different state Same substance different shape Same substance but dissolved Freezing point Liquid to solid Melting point Solid to liquid Condensation Liquid to gas Evaporation
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Liquid to gas Sublimation Solid to gas or gas to solid Vaporization Liquid to gas Dissolving To make a solution of, as by mixing with a liquid; pass into solution: to dissolve salt in water. Crystallizing To form into crystals; cause to assume crystalline form. Chemical changes At least one new substance Difficult to reverse Physical/chemical properties changed including melting point, boiling point and density PROOF Color change Heat/Light Formation of precipitate Difficult to reverse Bubbles/gases formed Density calculations and definition Mass/Volume Definitions Atom A particle in an element Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
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Compound A pure substance that contains two or more different elements in a fixed proportion Molecule The combination of two or more atoms PARTS OF AN ATOM THEIR ASSOCIATED CHARGES AND LOCATIONS Proton +1, Inside nucleus Neutron 0, Inside nucleus Electron -1, around the nucleus Bohr- Rutherford Diagrams, atomic number, atomic mass Atomic number = protons = electrons Atomic Mass – Atomic Number = Neutrons Negative and positive ions, why atoms become one or the other, or none at all Halogens – negative ions – anions Alkali metals – positive ions (+1) - cations Alkaline metals – positive ions (+2) Atomic symbols and the periodic table Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, Beryllium, Boron, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Prosperous , Sulfur, Chlorine, Argon, Potassium, Calcium. Counting atoms, naming chemical compounds and writing chemical formulas
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Grade 9 Science - EXAM TOPICS REVIEW BY DAVID KONG AND...

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