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Grade 10 Science Exam Review

Grade 10 Science Exam Review - Chemistry ReView By Vaibhav...

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Chemistry Re V iew By: Vaibhav Mokashi Chemistry Test 1 Topic Details Chemistry Study of matter and its interactions Matter Chart Chart Details Matter - Anything with density Pure Substances a substance that contains only one kind of particle Mixtures Two or more different types of particles physically placed with each other Elements a pure substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance Compounds a pure substance that contains two or more different elements in fixed ratios Homogeneous when the particles in a mixture appear as a single phase Heterogeneous - when the different particles (components) of a mixture can be seen States Solids (s) Liquids (l) Gas (g) Aqueous Dissolved (aq) Properties and Changes Physical Properties - characteristic of a substance that is used to identify it when no chemical change occurs Chemical Properties characteristic or property that helps identify a substance as it reacts Chemical Families Definition: Groups of elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table Alkali Metals Group 1 - include lithium, sodium, potassium - shiny and silvery metals - form compounds - white solids and soluble in water Alkaline Earth Metals Group 2 Matter Pure Substances Elements Compounds Mixtures Homogenous Heterogenous
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- include magnesium, calcium, barium - shiny and silvery metals - form compounds often insoluble in water Noble Gases - Helium, Neon - Do not form compounds Halogens Group 17 - Nonmetallic elements include: fluorine, chlorine - Poisonous elements - React with sodium and other alkali metals Elements and Atomic Structure The group number gives the number of electron in outermost/valence energy shell/shell. The period number is how many shells are used. Particle Symbol Charge Location Mass (u) Proton P + 1 Nucleus 1 Electron E - 1 Shell/Energy levels 1/3700 Neutron N No charge Nucleus 1 Bohr Diagrams Shell 1 : 2 electrons Shell 2 : 8 electrons Shell 3 : 8 electrons When nonmetals gain electrons to become stable, the name changes from ion to “ide” = ex. Fluoride ion. Compound Formation Compounds can be formed between elements by: A) Transfer of electrons B) Sharing of electrons Transfer Generally metals and non-metals engage in this process called Ionic Bonding. When electrons are transferred cations and anions are formed which attract to each other. Atoms acquire a stable octet in doing so. Compounds showing ionic bonding are ionic substances. Ionics compounds are compounds, made of particles and written in formula units. Properties of Ionic Substances Formed between metals and non-metals Crystalline Hard/Brittle Dissolve in water High Melting Points and Boling Points When dissolved they form electrolytes which are conductors No odor Sharing Substances Non-metal elements can form compounds by sharing electrons to produce a stable octet. No ions are produced covalent substances formed through sharing. Covalent substances are called molecules, particle or compounds.
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