History Exam Review - History Exam Review Topic Homo...

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History Exam Review Topic Definition Significance Homo Sapiens Cartouche An oval case or cartridge which was drawn to contain the hieroglyphs that spelt out a king's or queen's name. The two important cartouches were that of Cleopatra and Ptolemy since they helped decipher hieroglyphics. Cuneiform Sumerian writing technique that comes from the Latin word cuneus meaning wedge. Henry Rawlinson deciphered it by comparing cuneiform to old Persian text – it took 12 years Acropolis Acropolis is a flat-topped rock which rises 150 m (490 ft) above sea level in the city of Athens. Held a festival called the Panathenaea that rivaled the Olympic Games in popularity Dead Sea Scrolls The Dead Sea scrolls consist of roughly 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956. Great religious and historical significance – only known surviving copies of Biblical documents made before 100 AD, and preserve evidence of considerable diversity of belief and practice within late Second Temple Judaism. Ziggurat Temple – stepped pyramid of ancient Mesopotamia and was used – made of sun-dried mud bricks Stratigraphy Study of ground layers of a civilization and based on the archaeological principles that the oldest artifacts are found deeper in ground Hieroglyphic s Pictographic language used by Ancient Egyptians The Rosetta stone became the clue to hieroglyphic decoding. French linguistic Jean François Champollion was the first European to decipher Hieroglyphics Canopic Jars An object used to store internal organs during mummification. Bull Leaping Human athletes literally vaulted over bulls as part of a ceremonial rite Key ritual in the Minoan Civilization “Ladies in Blue” 1500 BC – found in the Palace of Knossos. Seems the Minoans saw themselves as slender and elegant; there is a slight arrogance to the tilt of the head and the facial expressions are relaxed, confident, and content. Minoans painted faces in profile as did the Egyptians, but they surpass the Egyptian artists in the fluid and graceful movement portrayed in their subjects.
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Phalanx A formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears. The infantry with spears would crush enemy front lines while the shields would be used to protect every man to the right and left. Ostracism Assembly could vote into exile any men considered a threat to the city-state’s democracy for 10 years – at least 6000 votes needed Themistocles was ostracized Moabite Stone About 9 th century BC Moabite King Mesha, discovered in 1868. The inscription of 34 lines, written in the Moabite language is the most extensive inscription ever recovered that refers to ancient Israel It was set up by Mesha, about 850 BC, as a record and memorial of his victories in his revolt against the Kingdom of Israel, undertaken after the death of his overlord, Ahab.
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