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Unit 1 - Homo Sapiens - History ReView By Vaibhav Mokashi...

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History Re V iew By: Vaibhav Mokashi Topic Detail Analyzing Artifacts and Dating Theories Artifacts (human made objects) can be broken down into main categories. Organic materials (remnants of living things such as plants and animals) Inorganic remains (store tools or pottery) The best preserved organic artifacts are found in Hot, dry regions (deserts) Freezing conditions (arctic regions) Waterlogged place 1. Peat bogs are acidic in nature which causes bones to decay but preserves flesh; thus remarkably preserved boneless bodies are sometimes found 2. He bottom of the sea covered by silt Human skeletal remains prevent special challenges to archaeologists: Age and gender Paleopathology (study of ancient diseases) Weapons, wounds and accidents Dating Artifacts Stratigraphy Study of ground layers of a civilization Based on the archaeological principles that the oldest artifacts are found deeper in ground Radioactive Dating Each radioactive elements decays at its own nearly constant rate Once this rate is known scientist can estimate the length of time over which decay has been occurring by measuring the amount of radioactive parent element Each radioactive isotope has its own unique ½ life each radioactive isotope. The ½ life is the time it takes for half of parent radioactive element decay to a daughter product Radioactive parent Stable Daughter Half Life Carbon 14 (C-14) Nitrogen 14 (N-14) 5730 years Potassium 40 (K-40) Argon 40 (Ar-40) 1.2 billion years Uranium 238 (U-238) Lead (Pb-206) 4.47 billion years Thorium 232 (Th-232) Lead 208 (Pb-208) 14 billion years Rubidium 87 (Rb-87) Strontium (Si-87) 48.8 billion years Paleolithic Age Paleolithic Ages (50 000 10 000 BC) Men were hunters and women were food gatherers Although hunting was common, 80% of the diet consisted of vegetables People were nomadic or semi nomadic they travelled Aware of keeping bloodlines strong, now various bands (500 bands) would join together at rituals or ceremonies to marry young people
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Appearance of bow and arrow, 20 000 BC gave hunters a higher success rate Upper Paleolithic Period (20 000 15 000 BC) a cultural explosion occurs Tools were carved for beauty and utility Pendants created from horse teeth and jewelry from shells Vibrant paintings of now extinct animals such as aurochs used to decorated caves and were found in South France, Lascaux Caves Built scaffolds that were 15 feet tall with silhouette’s made using charcoal and body painting occurred through usage of ochre clay and minerals. Ochre is yellow or reddish brown clay
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