Chapter 3 - What causes criminal behavior? Criminology...

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What causes criminal behavior? Criminology Theory
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Classical School Crime is caused by the individual exercise of free will. Acknowledges the role of pleasure and pain as motivators of behavior Crime can be prevented through swift and certain punishment Punishment must outweigh the benefits or gains of committing crime
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Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) On Crimes and Punishment 1764 Punishment should be certain but equal for all men regardless of their social status Punishment should NOT be excessive (i.e. torture) Punishment should be used as a deterrent, not as a form of social vengence Trials should be prompt, fair and impartial and match the crime that was committed
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Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) Utilitarianism Law must be used for the “greatest good of the greatest number of people” Hedonistic Calculus The exercise of free will would cause an individual to avoid committing a crime as long as the punishment outweighed the benefits of committing the crime.
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Neoclassical Criminology Modern version of classical school Emphasizes deterrence and retribution Human beings are free to make choices in favor of crime and deviance or conforming to the law
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Neoclassical criminology Rational Choice Theory Criminality is the result of conscious choices Predicts that individuals will choose to commit crime when the benefits of doing so outweigh the costs of disobeying the law
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Neoclassical criminology Routine Activities Theory Lifestyles and routine activities that people engage in contribute significantly to both the amount and the type of crime
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offender and a target come together in the absence of a capable guardian
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Biological A perspective on criminological thought that holds that criminal behavior has a physiological basis
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Biological Franz Joseph Gall: Phrenology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=80dZ71Km6
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Cesare Lombroso Criminals were
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Chapter 3 - What causes criminal behavior? Criminology...

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