bio chem huda 10.1 FG - Bio done by mesh 10.1 NEW LECTURE...

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Bio done by mesh 10.1 NEW LECTURE This is was our table of contents, we first talk about: 1-Introduction to communication. 2-Signal molecules. 3-Receptors and regulation of signal transduction. 4-Signal transduction of membrane-bound receptors and intracellular receptors. Slid 8: This is a schem show many regularity possibility. - This is a ligand coming to the receptor. - it is bound associated kinase are activated by autophosphorylation. - They phosphorylated in the cytoplasmic tail (The blue one). - then the signaling cascade starts, and you get the first effect typical Situation for signal cascades. i. that there are effectors molecules , several in hierarchy what you get ? is an amplification of the activation of the effecter molecule. And amplification because the one receptor can activates many molecules. Effector molecule I again can activate effector molecule II So this is another amplifications  what is very important here? Such activating reaction is quite of a phosphorylation . Tyrosine or serine phosphorylations. - And from the activating effector molecule you can activate transcription factors . also by phospholrelation quite often i. Different transcriptions factors can actually be activated and therefore different genes can be induced and activated and this is called Pleiotropy ii. A hormone or the mediator in general coming to the transcription factor but there is a possibility that 2 genes not only a single one So the specificity is not high quit often and this is called Pleiotropy Quotation : answer -This coul be the same transcription factor acting in different genes for example, or different TF acting on diff genes
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The regulation - This effector molecule can have a feedback actions back to the receptor which is inhibitory phenomena - Inh by the gene product that the effector molecule II for example can be inhibited. The effector molecule I can also be activated by a completely different receptor and different cytokine and interleukin mediator. So this is called Redundance that not only this hormone can do this effect but also these mediators can do it this also result in a kind of cross talk b/w the receptors. These different receptors if they have a common downstream player they can cross-talk to each other.
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