biochem 13.10 - Biochemistry Monday Eukaryotic and...

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Biochemistry Monday, October 13, 2008 Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cell Cell with a real nucleus. On the other hand a cell containing a membrane-bounded nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles. Euo : real Karyot: nuc nucleus Prokaryotic cell a type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea Pro : befor befor have a nuc The organelles: a space surrounded by internal membrane. The plant and human: have a common ancestor The nucleus : is envolped by a double membrane each one having to leaflets. These are broken by big holes which certify that the material which has been synthesis in the nuc can be brought into the cytosol and all the material needed to synthesis these material are brought to the nuc this called a nuclear pore. What is a nuclear pore? Openings in the membrane of a cell's nuclear envelope that allow the exchange of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Or it is a Nuclear pores are large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus. nuclear pore : it has something like specificity for this different product and the specificity carry out by having kind of little cars and it is take only one kind of substance and bring this into and out the nucleus 1
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The nuclear membrane is followed by ER membrane: we have 2 kinds - RER ( rough endoplasmic reticulum) : have a ribosome on it surface which are the machinery for the synthesis of ptn with the help of mRNA which is coming from the nuc and then goes out to this ribosome where the ptn is synthesis, o and in the RER the newly synthesis ptn will end up in the lumen o If the synthesis is concentrated at the end of these elongated structures which we called cistern . o and the cisterna pinch of and go to the Golgi o the Golgi : sort out the ptn by modify them “for Eg” here E glycocylate such a ptn and by differently glycocylating this ptn they can be brought into different compartment o but in essence again the same happens as here : the cis Golgi “where the vesicle are taken up” goes to the trans Golgi where they pinch of again and o these vesicle are brought to the plasma membrane again o and the plasma membrane fuses with these vesicle here you have the membrane and the leaflet of the double mem which is exposed to the cytosol and you have a leaflet which is exposed to the inner of this vesicle if they fuse they come continue with the plasma mem and clearly the cytosolic side stays the cytosolic site where the luminal side will be the EC side this is achieve by a certain ptn which make this fusion of these vesicles to the plasma mem and the content release out We have different kind of cell which are very active in this process for Eg : hormone producing cell the pancreases have α and β cell, the β cell produce insulin by this procedure on a stimulus “enhance the Glu in the blood” which is to release the
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