P11B+Slides+7--How+emotion+affects+memory - Emotional...

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1 How Emotion Affects Memory 1 2 Emotional events are relevant to goals Today Using associative network (schema) theory to explain how emotion affects memory: Emotional state dependent memory Emotion congruent memory Evidence for and against the claim that emotional memories are… permanent (considering different meanings of “permanent”) no different from any other memory 3 How does emotion affect memory? Gordon Bower: Emotions function like nodes in an associative network of information (that is, schemas) Emotion can enhance memory in two ways: Emotional state-dependent memory Emotion congruent memory 4 Emotional State-Dependent memory People remember information better if they learn it and recall it in the same emotional state For emotional state-dependent memory, the content or emotional tone of the information does not matter 5 Bower’s early study showing emotional state dependent memory 1. Happy or sad mood elicited via hypnosis 2. Learned list of neutral words; filler tasks 3. Happy or sad mood elicited via hypnosis 4. Recalled words 6
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2 Results 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Recal Happy Recal Sad Percent Recaled Learn Happy Learn Sad Recall performance was best when subjects learned and recalled words in the same emotional state 7 Emotional state-dependent memory is a very weak effect Found only when: emotions are intense the information being recalled is easily confusable except for its association with one particular emotional state (e.g., Bower's lists of unrelated words) 8 Emotion-congruent memory A much stronger effect People remember information better if the emotional tone of the information matches their current emotional state (e.g., happy events in a happy state; sad events in a sad state) 9 Emotion-congruent memory study Participants read a story about a happy protagonist and a sad protagonist Later, participants were induced to feel happy or sad before recalling the story Happy participants recalled more information about the happy character; reverse was true for sad participants
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2010 for the course PSY BEH 11B taught by Professor Levine during the Spring '10 term at UC Irvine.

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P11B+Slides+7--How+emotion+affects+memory - Emotional...

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