P11B+Slides+11--Language+structure+++meaning - 1 Language...

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Unformatted text preview: 5/3/2010 1 Language structure and meaning Outline Levels of language Language ≠ Speech Language disorders Behaviorist view of language acquisition Example of learning in animals 2 What is Language? A set of symbols, and principles for combining these symbols, which allow for communication and comprehension 3 Levels of Language Phonology The sound system of a language (phonemes) Morphology & Semantics How a language expresses meaning (morphemes, words) Syntax The structure of a language. Rules for combining words Pragmatics How language is used 4 Levels of language: Phonology The study of the basic sounds of consonants and vowels Phoneme: The smallest unit of sound that can be altered to change the meaning of a word In English, the words gin, kin, pin, tin, win all have different meanings because the initial sound, or phoneme, is different 5 Languages differ in phonemes If your language does not have phonemes of another language, it is difficult for you to hear the differences and to pronounce them correctly aspirated „t‟ (top) vs. unaspirated „t‟ (stop) 6 5/3/2010 2 Example of a phonetic difference among languages The sounds „R‟ and „L‟ are phonemes in English. They don‟t have a meaning by themselves, but they change the meaning of a word „red‟ vs. „led‟ In several Asian languages, „R‟ and „L‟ do not change the meaning of a word 7 Another example of phonological differences among languages tone: high rising falling then rising falling Mandarin: English: mother linen, hemp horse scolding, to scold 8 Tone is an important determinant of meaning in Mandarin Chinese but not in English How sounds (phonemes) are combined into larger units with meaning Morphene: smallest meaningful...
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This note was uploaded on 05/30/2010 for the course PSY BEH 11B taught by Professor Levine during the Spring '10 term at UC Irvine.

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P11B+Slides+11--Language+structure+++meaning - 1 Language...

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