HIS 109 Test 2 Study Guide.docx - Study Guide For Exam II...

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Study Guide For Exam II HIS 109Chapter 15: The Imperial RepublicFrederick Jackson Turner’s Frontier Thesis-“If the frontier is gone, where can we expand?”Groups and events that promoted ‘Imperialism’1.Evangelical ChristiansConvinced of superiority of whites and Christianity“Duty” to save the souls of ‘heathens’ and spread civilization2.Industrial CapitalistsWanted to expand overseas to increase business profitsForeign trade important because “we are raising more than we can consume, we are making more than we can use”Scramble for Africa – Europeans were dividing up Africa; many were afraid US would be left out with no territory left to acquire3.Economic Crises -- 1890s1893 DepressionIdeologically reinforcement for foreign expansion from Frederick Jackson Turner’s “Frontier Thesis”If the frontier is gone, where can we expand?? Egalitarianism – the idea of equalityThe “Scramble for Africa”-Europeans were dividing up Africa; many were afraid US would be left out with no territory let toacquire Josiah Strong: Our Country (book)-Anglo Saxon ‘race’ must spread civilization and pure Christianity to other areas – and “spread itself over the earth”-Other races are inferior to Anglo Saxons (white)-Other races are weaker than Anglo SaxonsAlfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History-Peacetime military buildup-US must control the seas and have a strong navy to become a world power-‘big navy policy’-Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and Pago Pago – Pacific fueling stations-(The US wasn’t a BIG deal until WWI)Oahu, Pearl Harbor, and Pago Pago-Pacific fueling stations Jingoism (old British expression)-Imperialist sentiment was high-Jingoism – 1870s British expression-Belief in an aggressive and arrogant foreign policy -Willingness to go to war to enhance nation’s glory-Extreme nationalism (over the top belief that your nation is the best)-Wanted a war ----- Spain gave imperialists a war!Spanish American War-1890s Cuba and Puerto Rico were all that was left of Spain’s ‘New World” empire-1860s Cubans had been revolting against Spanish rule
-General Valeriano Weyler – rounded up thousands of Cuban rebels to ‘concentration camps” -200,000 or 1/8 of population of Cuba died in camps, or of starvation and disease during this period-Problems for American soldiersoSupply problems – shortages of modern rifles and ammunition; uniforms too heavy for the warm Caribbean weather, inadequate medical services and little/bad food-Racial conflicts oThere were 4 black regiments in the regular army oMany black volunteers for this waroBlack soldiers in the South passing through disregarded the “Jim Crow” segregation lawsoHalf the Cuban rebels were dark skinned and fully integrated into their militaryoMost of the Spaniards were white/light skinnedInitial reason for the war-Yellow journal -Cuban émigrés -Feb. 1898 de Lomeletter -Feb 1898. The MaineGeneral Valeriano Weyler-Rounded up thousands of Cuban rebels to “concentration camps”Tabloid Newspapers-Appeal to popular audience -HUGE attention seeking headlines -

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