Groups Lecture

Groups Lecture - Groups and Individuals The Consequences of...

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Groups and Individuals: The Consequences of Belonging Group -a collection of people perceived to be bonded together in a coherent unit to some degree Used to require face-to-face contact Virtual groups Entiativity– the extent to which a group is perceived as being a coherent entity Low entiativity- college students in the US High entiativity- romantic couples and families Group Structure When people are together in a group, they do not remain the same as they are outside of that group. They develop patterns of behavior, divide tasks, and adopt different roles. These patterns are referred to as the social structure of the group. We’re going to look at several important elements of social structure. 1. Roles – behaviors individuals occupying specific positions within a group are expected to perform Division of labor; explicit or implicit Example - Researchers, led by Philip Zimbardo, created a mock prison in 1973 in a laboratory basement. 21 male undergraduates. Within a brief time, the "guards" and "prisoners" became totally absorbed in their respective roles. As the guards grew more aggressive, the prisoners became passive and apathetic. Finally, after only 6 days, the experiment had to be halted because several of the prisoners had breakdowns. 2. Status – position or rank within a group Expectation states theory analyzes the creation of status differences in groups. According to this perspective, group members want to achieve certain goals and are willing to confer high status on members who can help the group succeed. 3. Social norms– shared rules and expectations about behavior Romantic love in girls 6 th -8 th grade Had to be concerned, but not overly Exclusivity- one boy per girl Norms may be informal or explicit 4. Cohesiveness– all factors that cause group members to remain in the group 1
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Many factors affect the cohesiveness of a group. How much members like each other. Extent to which a group interacts effectively and harmoniously (we don’t stay in groups where our time is wasted) Instrumental goals of the group (if they match our goals, we are more likely to stay) Group cohesiveness is also affected by forces that discourage members from leaving, even if they are dissatisfied (the cost of leaving may be too high, or there may be no alternatives) Effects of the Presence of Others A. Social Facilitation– effects upon performance resulting from the presence of others. Sometimes the presence of others improves performance The presence of others sometimes inhibits individual performance. Floyd Allport- 1920’s participants worked individually crossing out vowels, easy multiplication, refuting arguments More productive when there were other people in the room Observed in animals (ant will dig 3x’s as much when other ants are around) Social inhibition- presence of others is inhibiting Allport- quality of work lower when others were present Why does the presence of others sometimes improve performance and at other times
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Groups Lecture - Groups and Individuals The Consequences of...

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