Chapter 4-Attitudes

Chapter 4-Attitudes - Chapter 4 Attitudes Evaluating the...

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Chapter 4 – Attitudes: Evaluating the World Attitudes – evaluations of various aspects of the social world. Affective component- emotional reactions Cognitive component - thoughts/beliefs Behavioral component – actions/observable behaviors Attitude Ambivalence – refers to the fact that we often have positive and negative evaluations of the same attitude object. Attitude Formation Abraham Tesser (1993) suggests that some attitudes are linked to our genes. Monozygotic-clones- 100% identical DNA Dizygotic- no more genetically similar than any other siblings It appears that some attitudes are an indirect function of our genetic makeup. Tesser suggests that attitudes are related to things like our temperament and personality , which are directly related to our genes. Higher correlations between attitudes of monozygotic than dizygotic twins suggest genetic influence. Monozygotic twins share more attitudes than dizygotic, even when raised apart. Types of Attitudes 1. Cognitively based attitudes –the extent to which a person’s attitude is based primarily on their beliefs about the properties of an attitude object. Example- merits of a car 2. Affectively based attitudes – an attitude based more on emotions and values than an objective appraisal of the object. Sex, politics, and religion Although affectively based attitudes can have different sources, we can group them into one family because they have certain features in common: They do not result from a rational examination of the issues. They are not governed by logic- difficult to persuade through argument They are often linked to people’s values
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3. Behaviorally based attitudes – derived from your own observations of how you behave toward an object. Self-perception theory – under certain circumstances, people don’t know how they feel until they see how they behave. Conditions: A. Attitude is weak/ambiguous B. No other plausible explanations for behavior Sources of Attitudes : 1. They can stem from people’s values , such as their basic religious and moral beliefs. -Express/validate own value system 2. Other affectively based attitudes can be the result of a sensory or aesthetic reaction. 3. Social Learning – the process through which we acquire new information, forms of behavior, or attitudes from other persons. A. Classical conditioning, AKA Pavlovian conditioning –response naturally provoked by one stimulus comes to be provoked by another, previously neutral stimulus -Neutral stimulus- does not usually produce behavior being studied Pavlov’s Conditioning Experiments Classical conditioning was discovered almost by accident by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist who was studying digestive processes. He noticed that the dogs salivated before the food was in their mouths:
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Chapter 4-Attitudes - Chapter 4 Attitudes Evaluating the...

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