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02_ProblemSolvingAsSearch

02_ProblemSolvingAsSearch - Intelligent Agents Agent...

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9/11/2009 1 Problem Solving as Search Intelligent Agents Agent : Anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators . Agent Function: Agent behavior is determined by the agent function that maps any given percept sequence to an action. Agent Program : The agent function for an artificial agent will be implemented by an agent program. A Simple Reflex Agent Enviro What the world is like now Sensors Agent onment What action I should do now Condition action rules Actuators Agent with Model and Internal State Enviro What the world is like now Sensors Agent How the world evolves onment What action I should do now Condition action rules Actuators Goal Based Agent Enviro What the world is like now Sensors Agent How the world evolves onment What action I should do now Goals Actuators What it will be like if I do action A Problem Solving as Search Search is a central topic in AI Originated with Newell and Simon's work on problem solving. Famous book: “Human Problem Solving” (1972) Automated reasoning is a natural search task More recently: Smarter algorithms Given that almost all AI formalisms (planning, learning, etc.) are NP complete or worse, some form of search is generally unavoidable (no “smarter” algorithm available).
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9/11/2009 2 Defining a Search Problem State space described by initial state starting state actions possible actions available successor function; operators given a ti l t t t t f particular state x , returns a set of < action , successor
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