08-Learning_knn - 10/2/2009 What is Learning? Examples...

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10/2/2009 1 Learning What is Learning? Examples Riding a bike (motor skills) Telephone number (memorizing) Read textbook (memorizing and operationalizing rules) Playing backgammon (strategy) Develop scientific theory (abstraction) Language Recognize fraudulent credit card transactions Etc. (One) Definition of Learning Definition [Mitchell]: A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E. Examples Spam Filtering T: Classify emails HAM / SPAM E: Examples (e 1 ,HAM),(e 2 ,SPAM),(e 3 ,HAM),(e 4 ,SPAM), . .. P: Prob. of error on new emails Personalized Retrieval T: find documents the user wants for query E: watch person use Google (queries / clicks) P: # relevant docs in top 10 Play Checkers T: Play checkers E: games against self P: percentage wins How can an Agent Learn? Learning strategies and settings rote learning (memorization) learning from instruction (being told) learning by analogy (from known to new learning by analogy (from known to new) learning from observation and discovery (unsupervised) learning from examples (inductive) –Carbonell, Michalski & Mitchell. Inductive Learning / Concept Learning Task: Learn (to imitate) a function f: X Y Training Examples: Learning algorithm is given the correct value of the function for particular inputs training examples An example is a pair ( x, f ( x )), where x is the input and f ( x ) is the output of the function applied to x . Goal: Learn a function h: X Y that approximates f: X Y as well as possible.
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10/2/2009 2 Concept Learning Example Food (3) Chat (2) Fast (2) Price (3) Bar (2) BigTip great yes yes normal no yes great no yes normal no yes mediocre yes no high no no great yes yes normal yes yes
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08-Learning_knn - 10/2/2009 What is Learning? Examples...

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