15_KB_systems - 11/4/2009 History of AI 1943 1969 The...

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11/4/2009 1 Knowledge Based Systems History of AI 1943 – 1969 The Beginnings 1943 McCulloch and Pitts show networks of neurons can compute and learn any function 1950 Shannon and Turing wrote chess programs 1951 Minsky and Edmonds build the first neural network computer (SNARC) 1956 Dartmouth Conference – Newell and Simon brought a reasoning 1956 Dartmouth Conference Newell and Simon brought a reasoning program “The Logic Theorist” which proved theorems. 1952 Samuel’s checkers player 1958 McCarthy designed LISP, helped invent time sharing and created Advice Taker (a domain independent reasoning system) 1960’s Microworlds – solving limited problems: SAINT (1963), ANALOGY (1968), STUDENT (1967), blocksworld invented. 1962 Perceptron Convergence Theorem is proved. 1952 Samuel’s checkers player o TV Example ANALOGY Problem Blocksworld History of AI 1966 – 1974 Recognizing Lack of Knowledge Herb Simon (1957): Computer chess program will be world chess champion within 10 years. Intractable problems, lack of computing power Lighthil Report 1973 (Lighthill Report, 1973) Machine translation Limitations in knowledge representation (Minsky and Papert, 1969) Knowledge poor programs
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2 Knowledge Representation Human intelligence relies on a lot of background knowledge the more you know, the easier many tasks become ”knowledge is power” E.g. SEND + MORE = MONEY puzzle. Natural language understanding Time flies like an arrow. Fruit flies like a banana. John saw the diamond through the window and coveted it John threw the brick through the window and broke it The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak. (English) The vodka is good but the meat is rotten. (Russian) Or: Plan a trip to L.A. Domain knowledge How did we encode domain knowledge so far? For search problems? For learning problems? Knowledge Based Systems/Agents Key components: Knowledge base: a set of sentences expressed in some knowledge representation language Inference/reasoning mechanisms to query what is known and to derive new information or make decisions. Natural candidate: logical language (propositional/first order) combined with a logical inference mechanism How close to human thought? In any case, appears reasonable strategy for machines.
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15_KB_systems - 11/4/2009 History of AI 1943 1969 The...

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