aws welding handbook ninth edition vol.1 (welding science and technology).pdf - Welding Handbook Ninth Edition Volume 1 WELDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Aws welding handbook ninth edition vol.1 (welding science and technology).pdf

This preview shows page 1 out of 919 pages.

Unformatted text preview: Welding Handbook Ninth Edition Volume 1 WELDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Prepared under the direction of the Welding Handbook Committee Cynthia L. Jenney Annette O’Brien Editors American Welding Society 550 N.W. LeJeune Road Miami, FL 33126 Welding Handbook, Ninth Edition Volume 1 Welding Science and Technology Volume 2 Welding Processes-Part 2 Volume 3 Welding Processes-Part 2 Volume 4 Materials and Applications-Part 2 Volume 5 Materials and Applications-Part 2 Welding Handbook Ninth Edition Volume 1 WELDING SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY American Welding Society O 2001 by American Welding Society All rights reserved No portion of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. Authorization to photocopy items for internal, personal, or educational classroom use only, or the internal, personal, or educational classroom use only of specific clients, is granted by the American Welding Society (AWS) provided the appropriate fee is paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923; telephone: (978) 750-8400; Internet: . Library of Congress Control Number: 2001089999 International Standard Book Number: 0-87171-657-7 The Welding Handbook is the result of the collective effort of many volunteer technical specialists who provide information to assist with the design and application of welding and allied processes. The information and data presented in the Welding Handbook are intended for informational purposes only. Reasonable care is exercised in the compilation and publication of the Welding Handbook to ensure the authenticity of the contents. However, no representation is made as to the accuracy, reliability, or completeness of this information, and an independent, substantiating investigation of the information should be undertaken by the user. The information contained in the Welding Handbook shall not be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, which is covered by patent, copyright, or trademark. Also, it shall not be construed as a defense against any liability for such infringement. Whether the use of any information in the Welding Handbook would result in an infringement of any patent, copyright, or trademark is a determination to be made by the user. Printed in the United States of America DEDICATION William L. Green 1925-1998 Robert L. O’Brien 1927-1 998 In recognition of their distinguished service to the welding industry and their enduring contributions to the Welding Handbook. W. L. Green served as Chair of the Welding Handbook Committee on Symbols for Joining and Inspection for this volume of the Welding Handbook. He was active in the American Welding Society (AWS) A2 Committees, which promote the accurate communication of welding technology through the development of standard terms, definitions, and welding engineering symbols. The American Welding Society recognized W. L. Green in 1963 with the Adams Memorial Membership Award for his outstanding work as an engineering educator at The Ohio State University. Over a period of 30 years, he developed and taught courses in the areas of welding design, codes, procedure development, process applications, manufacturing systems, and the testing and inspection of welds. R. L. O’Brien was editor of Welding Processes, Volume 2 of the eighth edition of the Welding Handbook, which was published in 1991. He was active in the AWS C5 Committees on plasma arc welding and cutting. His career included research and original development work with plasma arc welding and cutting for the former Linde Company, a division of Union Carbide, where he held various technical, training, and managerial positions. As a member of the American Welding Society staff, he served in several technical and educational capacities. He was editor of the eighteenth edition of Jefferson’s Welding Encyclopedia, published in 1997. R. L. O’Brien received the American Welding Society’s Plummer Memorial Educational Lecture award in 1963. In 1998, he was posthumously granted the AWS Honorary Membership award for exceptional accomplishments in the industry. W. L. (Bill) Green and R. L. (Bob) O’Brien were Life Members of the American Welding Society. Both made substantial contributions to welding technology and enjoyed being a part of the profession. Both shared their technical knowledge freely and enthusiastically, Bill Green as an educator and Bob O’Brien as an author, editor, and lecturer. Both were highly regarded, honorable human beings whose integrity enriched the welding industry. V CONTENTS PREFACE ............................................................................................................................................................. ACKNOWLEGEMENTS .................................................................................................................................... CONTRIBUTORS ............................................................................................................................................. xi xii ... XIII CHAPTER I - S U R V E Y OF JOINING. CUTTING. AND ALLIED PROCESSES ................................. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... Joining Processes ................................................................................................................................................... Cutting Processes................................................................................................................................................. Thermal Spraying ................................................................................................................................................ Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................ Supplementary Reading List ................................................................................................................................ 1 2 3 42 47 49 49 50 CHAPTER 2-PHYSICS OF WELDING AND CUTTING........................................................................ Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ Fusion and Solid-state Welding ........................................................................................................................... Energy Sources for Welding ................................................................................................................................. Arc Characteristics .............................................................................................................................................. Metal Transfer ..................................................................................................................................................... Melting Rates ...................................................................................................................................................... Physical Properties of Metals and Shielding Gases ............................................................................................... Conclusion .......................................................................................................................................................... Bibliography ........................................................................................................................................................ Supplementary Reading List ................................................................................................................................ 51 52 52 57 67 73 78 81 84 84 84 FLOW I N WELDING ................................................................................................. 87 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 88 88 Heat Flow Fundamentals ..................................................................................................................................... Quantitative Calculation of Heat Transfer in Fusion Welding ............................................................................. 95 Conduction of Heat during Fusion Welding ........................................................................................................ 97 105 Convective Heat Transfer in the Weld Pool ....................................................................................................... 108 Relative Importance of Conduction and Convection ......................................................................................... Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ 111 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 112 113 Supplementary Reading List .............................................................................................................................. CHAPTER %HEAT CHAPTER A W E L D I N G METALLURGY ................................................................................................ Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... Physical Metallurgy ........................................................................................................................................... Metallurgy of Welding ....................................................................................................................................... Weldability of Commercial Alloys ..................................................................................................................... Corrosion in Weldments .................................................................................................................................... The Brazed or Soldered Joint ............................................................................................................................. Corrosion in Brazed and Soldered Joints ........................................................................................................... Conclusion ........................................................................................................................................................ Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... Supplementary Reading List .............................................................................................................................. CHAPTER S D E S I G N FOR WELDING ................................................................................................... Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... Properties of Metals .......................................................................................................................................... Weldment Design Program ................................................................................................................................ Welded Design Considerations ......................................................................................................................... vii 115 116 116 130 140 149 151 154 154 155 155 157 158 158 166 170 Design of Welded Joints ..................................................................................................................................... Selection of Weld Type ....................................................................................................................................... Sizing of Steel Welds ........................................................................................................................................... Tubular Connections .......................................................................................................................................... Aluminum Structures ......................................................................................................................................... Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... Bibliography....................................................................................................................................................... Supplementary Reading List ............................................................................................................................... &TEST METHODS FOR EVALUATING WELDED JOINTS .......................................... 182 193 196 216 226 236 237 237 Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... Testing for Strength ............................................................................................................................................ Hardness Tests ................................................................................................................................................... Bend Tests .......................................................................................................................................................... Fracture Toughness Testing ................................................................................................................................ Fatigue Testing ................................................................................................................................................... Corrosion Testing ............................................................................................................................................... Creep and Rupture Testing ................................................................................................................................. Testing of Thermal Spray Applications ............................................................................................................... Weldability Testing ............................................................................................................................................. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... Supplementary Reading List ............................................................................................................................... 239 240 241 256 260 261 272 277 280 281 284 292 292 294 CHAPTER 7-RESIDUAL STRESS AND DISTORTION....................................................................... Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... Fundamentals ..................................................................................................................................................... Nature and Causes of Residual Stress................................................................................................................. Effects of Residual Stress .................................................................................................................................... Measurement of Residual Stress ......................................................................................................................... Residual Stress Distribution Patterns .................................................................................................................. Effects of Specimen Size and Weight ................................................................................................................... Effects of Welding Sequence ............................................................................................................................... Residual Stress in Welds Made with Different:Welding Processes ....................................................................... Weld Distortion .................................................................................................................................................. Reducing or Controlling Residual Stress and Distortion ..................................................................................... Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... Supplementary Reading List ............................................................................................................................... 297 298 298 300 308 333 318 322 325 326 328 351 354 354 356 CHAPTER PSYMBOLS FOR JOINING AND INSPECTION ............................................................. 359 360 361 361 373 381 382 385 393 393 393 TOOLING AND POSITIONING ................................................................ 395 396 396 CHAPTER Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... Fundamentals ..................................................................................................................................................... Welding Symbols ................................................................................................................................................ Welding Symbols for Specific Weld Types ........................................................................................................... Brazing Symbols ................................................................................................................................................. Soldering Symbols .............................................................................................................................................. Inspection Symbols............................................................................................................................................. Conclusion ......................................................................................................................................................... Bibliography....................................................................................................................................................... Supplementary Re...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture