article1_Vogel_2004

article1_Vogel_2004 - Foc us 944 The quest for a SARS...

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Young investigators may still suffer, says Howard Garrison of the Federation of Ameri- can Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB): “It doesn’t provide the basis for a sustained program of research.” To NIH’s boosters, it’s not surprising that the number of grant submissions is growing just as the budget doubling ends. “There are more people in the system now,” says David Korn of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Both AAMC and FASEB have warned that the gains of doubling will be lost in a few years if NIH receives less than its historical annual increases of 7% to 9%. The president’s request is not the final word, of course. Zerhouni has asked his di- rectors for examples of new initiatives that they have put on hold to present to Con- gress in upcoming appropriations hearings. They just might inspire Congress to be more generous. –J OCELYN K AISER www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 303 13 FEBRUARY 2004 937 CREDIT:W.S.HWANG ET AL. 9 4 4 9 4 6 9 4 8 The quest for a SARS vaccine Turmoil in French science Gas from ice Focus In work that observers call both remarkable and inevitable, scientists in South Korea have pulled off two firsts in the fields of human embryonic stem (ES) cells and human cloning. They have produced an ES cell line from cloned human cells—an advance that holds promise for replacing cells damaged by diseases such as Parkinson’s and diabetes. In doing so, the team has apparently overcome some of the obstacles that to date have ham- pered human and monkey cloning. The work is likely to reignite the smoldering debate over how such research should be regulated. Since the birth of Dolly the cloned sheep in 1996 and the isolation of human ES cells in 1998, scientists have hoped to combine the two techniques to create ES cells with genes that match those of a patient, an idea called therapeutic cloning or “cloning for stem cells.” As published online in Science this week (www.sciencemag.org/cgi/ content/abstract/1094515), a team led by veterinary cloning expert Woo Suk Hwang and gynecologist Shin Yong Moon of Seoul National University in South Korea shows that the technique can work in humans. The researchers describe how they created a hu- man ES cell line by inserting the nucleus of a human cumulus cell into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (Cumulus cells surround the developing eggs in an ovary, and in mice and cattle they are particularly efficient nucleus donors for cloning.) After using chemicals to prompt the reconstructed egg to start dividing, the team allowed it to develop for a week to the blastocyst stage, when the embryo forms a hollow ball of cells. They then removed the cells that in a normal embryo are destined to become the placenta, leaving the so-called inner-cell mass that would develop into the fetus. When these cells are grown in culture, they can become ES cells, which reproduce
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article1_Vogel_2004 - Foc us 944 The quest for a SARS...

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