50Sp10StudyGuideWeeks1_3-1 - MCD Bio 50 Spring 2010 Study...

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MCD Bio 50 Spring 2010 Study Guide: Weeks 1-3 Introduction to Stem Cells Embryonic Stem Cells Reprogramming I: Nuclear Transfer. Cloning and Epigenetics Reprogramming II: Induced Pluripotent Cells You should use both the lecture slides and your notes to find the answers to the questions/prompts below. You need your notes especially when I created definitions, explanations, tables etc. on the blackboard. Also remember that you can refer to the audio recordings on www.bruincast.ucla.edu to review the lectures. For the midterm exam: keep in mind that you need to have read the relevant book chapters (as listed on the syllabus) and that I may ask questions about the discussion section material on the exam. Study Questions Introduction to Stem Cells Early human development: 1. Describe the sequence of events and stages during the early development of humans in detail. a. Fertilization occurs when one sperm penetrates the egg’s outer membrane. The chromosomes from each parent merge in one nucleus. This is now called a zygote and is only one cell. One day after fertilization the zygote begins a series of mitotic divisions called cleavage. Blastomeers (totipotent) accumulate in side the embryo but it does not change in total volume. This all takes place in the fallopian tubes. At 3 days the embryo is called a morula and is traveling towrads the uterus. On the 4 th day fluid forms a cavity in the morula. The cells rearrange somewhat into 2 regions, an outer layer called the trophoblast and an inner region called the ICM which is the source of eSCs. At this stage between 4-6 days old the embryo is called a blastocyst and has implanted in the uterus wall. At week 3 gastrulation occurs , primitive streak develops which causes cells from the ICM organize into three kinds of cells called germ layers. The ectoderm cells will eventually become skin cells or nerve cells. The mesoderm cells become blood cells or muscles cells and the endoderm cells become gut cells or lung cells. Week 4 heart cell begin to beat. Week 5-6 most organ buds are distinguishable, gonads develop. Week 7 digits are distinguishable.Week 8 the embryo is distinctly human and thus begins fetal development i. Primative streak- first evidence of the nervous system ii. epiblast- layer of cells from which three germ layers arise 2. What is the developmental stage subsequent to week 8 called? a. Before is Embryonic Development. After this is fetal development 3. Describe the main ways to define the term ‘embryo.’ a. From the moment of implantation until the end of the 8 th week whereafter it is called a fetus b. Developmental stage that follows implantation and proceeds organogenesis c. Introduction to stem cells: 4. What are the defining characteristics of stem cells (in general)? a.
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This note was uploaded on 05/31/2010 for the course MCD BIO 50 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at UCLA.

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50Sp10StudyGuideWeeks1_3-1 - MCD Bio 50 Spring 2010 Study...

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