Wheelock's Latin (Wheelock's Latin)

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Benissimus’ Wheelock’s Answer Chapter 1 SENTENTIAE 1. Labor calls me. 2. Please, warn me if I err. 3. Hasten slowly. 4. You praise me; they blame me. 5. We often sin. 6. What should we think? 7. Protect me! explanation 8. A rumor flies. 9. She does not love me. 10. Nothing scares me. 11. Apollo often saves me. 12. Hello!—what do you see? We see nothing. 13. You often plan nothing. 14. You give twice, if you give quickly. 15. If you are well, I am well. 16. Quid videt? 17. Nihil dant. 18. Me laudare non debes. 19. Si erro, me saepe monet. 20. Si me amas, serva me, amabo te! (you may not use the plurals amatis / servate explanation) Chapter 2 discussion SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Hello, O fatherland! 2. Rumor and opinion fly. 3. Give the girl a pardon, please. 4. Your clemency saves many lives. 5. He carries away much money. 6. You often praise but reject the fortune and life of the old country. 7. You order me to avoid the crowd. 8. I give myself to philosophy. 9. Philosophy is the art of life. 10. Preserve the sound beauty of life. 11. Immoderate anger creates insanity. 12. What are you thinking? – we must avoid anger. 13. There is no avarice without punishment. 14. It oppresses me with cruel chains. 15. They do not fear the wheel of fortune. 16. Puellae vitam poetae servant. 17. Sine philosophia saepe erramus et poenas damus. 18. Si valet tua patria, nihil nautas terret et debes magnam fortunam tuam laudare. 19. Saepe poenam irae videmus. 20. Porta antiqua est magna. Chapter 3 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. We see the son of a Roman sailor on the farm. 2. The boys are calling the girls today. 3. My daughter, he always praises his friends’ wisdom. 4. Many men and women preserve the ancient philosophy. 5. If anger is strong, O my son, we often err and pay the penalty. 6. Fortune loves great men. 7. The farmer gives his daughters money. 8. Sine paucis amicis vita non valet. 9. Multam famam in patria tua hodie habes. 10. Videmus, mi amice, magnam fortunam in filiarum tuarum vitis. 11. Filiis et filiabus meis rosas semper dat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Friends, you must think of the Roman people. 2. Maecenas, a friend of Augustus, has me in his number of friends. 3. My little book and opinions advise men’s lives. 4. Few men are eager for wisdom. 5. Adverse fortune does not frighten a man of great wisdom. 6. Cimon, a man of great fame, possesses great benevolence. 7. A greedy man is always in need. 8. No abundance of money satisfies a greedy man. 9. Money excites, not satisfies a greedy man. 10. Advise your friends in secret; praise them openly. 11. We ought to keep moderation. Chapter 4 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Leisure is good, but the leisure of many is a small thing. 2. Wars are bad and have many dangers. 3. Duty calls the sailor from leisure today. 4. Few greedy men see the many forms of danger in money. 5. If you have much money, you are often not without anxiety. 6. The girls warn the teacher about the evil plan without delay. 7. O great poet, we are true friends; help me, please! 8. The farmer’s wife sees the gate – or – The woman sees the farmer’s gate. 9. In magno periculo es. 10. Sententiae mei filii saepe sunt stultae. 11. Filiae et filii virorum et feminarum magnarum non semper sunt magni. 12. Sine consilio bona fortuna nautarum est nihil et poenas dant. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Fortune is blind. 2. If the danger is real, you are unfortunate. 3. Hello, friend; you are a good man. 4. Your son’s reputation is not charming. 5. To err is human. 6. Nothing is entirely blessed. 7. The cure for anger is delay. 8. My friend, kind Daphnis, loves leisure and the farmer’s life. 9. Teachers often give cookies and gifts to small children. 10. I love my friend more than my eyes. 11. Hello, my pretty girl – give me many kisses, please! 12. The number of fools is infinite. 13. Duty calls me. 14. Bad men are in our number and they are plotting about the destruction of good men. Help the good men; protect the Roman people. Chapter 5 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Duty always called free men. 2. Will we have many men and women of great courage? 3. The dangers of war are not small, but your fatherland will call you and the farmers will help. 4. Because of the evil men’s crimes, our country will not be well. 5. The delay was conquering our spirits and we did not possess the cure. 6. Many stayed in the fields yesterday and were helping the Romans. 7. Few men used to think about the care of the spirit. 8. Because of anger, you are in blame and tomorrow you will pay the penalty. 9. You do not have true leisure, foolish man! 10. Nothing is without fault; we are good if we have few [faults]. 11. The poet gave the girl many roses, fine gifts, and kisses. 12. Manebuntne semper bellum et exitium in terra nostra? 13. Avarumne pecunia satiat? 14. Famam igitur nostrorum puerorum stultorum servabis. 15. Pecunia et gloria animum viri boni superabant. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. You will not endure the Roman people’s dislike tomorrow. 2. Did danger therefore remain yesterday? 3. A narrow mind loves money. 4. Overcome your pride and your anger. 5. The fault is mine, O friends. 6. Give our son and daughters a pardon. 7. Because of youth, my sons, you used to not see the bad things of life. 8. Please, take care of my daughter. 9. Human life is a punishment. 10. Are you sane enough? 11. If ever I will have enough money, at that time I shall give myself to wisdom and philosophy. 12. Your glory and fame will always remain. 13. The good and skillful man will blame the harsh words of poets. Chapter 6 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Our eyes were not strong; by which reason we were not able to see the pretty fields. 2. Without much money and many gifts, the tyrant will not be able to satisfy the Roman people. 3. Therefore, they could not warn you about your friends’ punishment yesterday. 4. A small number of the Greeks will be able to stay there tomorrow. 5. The teacher will call the bad children without delay. 6. Your daughters use to think often about the great poet’s books. 7. When shall we have enough wisdom? 8. Many ancient books were great because of wisdom and advice. 9. The glory of good books will always remain. 10. Can money and leisure overcome the concerns of human life? 11. Vera igitur vitia tyranni non semper possumus videre. 12. Pauci liberi tyrannum tolerare poterunt. 13. Multi Romani magnos Graecorum antiquorum libros laudabant. 14. Ubi possunt gloria famaque esse perpetuae? SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Dionysius was, at that time, the tyrant of the Syracusans 2. Do you wish to taste my life and fortune? 3. Can we be safe, O gods, in wicked treachery and great destruction? 4. Because of my attention, you will not be in continuous danger. 5. Because of your vices, many blame you and nothing can delight you now in your country. 6. The fortune of the second Punic war was varied. 7. The fatherland of the Romans was full of Greek books and fine statues. 8. Without the gods and goddesses in the sky, the spirit cannot be sound. 9. If the spirit is weak, it will not be able to tolerate good fortune. 10. Where the laws are strong, the free people there can be strong. Chapter 7 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. You saw the student’s second letter yesterday and then thought about the words. 2. The women will warn the state about the ambush and wicked destruction without delay. 3. The king and queen therefore will not dare remain there tomorrow. 4. The Greeks’ customs were not without faults and vices. 5. When will men have enough virtue? 6. Your bodies are sound and your minds are full of wisdom. 7. Because of human character we shall not have true peace. 8. Will the state be able to overcome the dangers of our times? 9. After the war, they kept seeing many books about peace and the remedies for war. 10. We can see duties and wisdom with the eyes of the spirit. 11. Sine moribus sanis pacem habere non possumus. 12. Multi discipuli parvum tempus litteris Graecis habebant. 13. Post tempora mala virtus vera et labor multus civitatem adiuvabunt. 14. Ibi filiae amicorum vestrorum heri cenabant. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. I am a man. 2. Nothing beneath the sun [is] new. 3. I now sing new songs about youth for maidens and boys. 4. You praise the fortune and character of the ancient plebs. 5. Good men hate to sin because of love for virtue. 6. Under a harsh prince and bad times, you dare to be good. 7. Foolish people often give public offices to unworthy men. 8. We always see the name of the foolish on the walls and gates of buildings. 9. Leisure without literature is death. 10. Many nations can tolerate servitude; our state cannot. Remarkable is the recovery of liberty. 11. Life gives nothing to mortals without great effort. 12. How will we be able to be safe and free in perpetual peace? 13. Glory to God in the highest and peace to men of good will on earth. Chapter 8 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Our times are now bad; our vices, great. 2. Why does (will, did) my sister write a letter to your wife? 3. The tyrant will (does, did) lead the foolish people out of your land. 4. When will there be enough judgment and courage in humans? 5. An abundance of true virtue was able to overcome many faults. 6. In the free state, we spent our youth. 7. We should never tolerate a bad king. 8. After a little delay, we shall write many words of the treachery of foolish writers. 9. Ibi corpus sub terra remanebit. 10. [Scribe] / [Scribite] multa de gloria civitatis nostrae. 11. Ducitne ratio reginam vestram semper ad virtutem? 12. Multa nomina Graeca ibi semper videbimus. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. My brother will always spend his life in leisure. 2. Come, come! Help me! Take me to my second son. 3. Oh friends, we are destroying liberty. 4. I shall expose the new dangers to the Roman people without delay. 5. We shall never conquer danger without danger. 6. From my errors, I can show the right way to people. 7. Catullus gives great thanks to Marcus Tullius Cicero. 8. The extraordinary beauty of a maiden turns people’s eyes. 9. Agamemnon will lead his great troops from the Greek country to Troy, where he will kill many men. 10. Love of praise draws men. 11. Caesar will protect supporters of peace. 12. Among many worries and labors, I cannot write poems. 13. While you, my friend, declaim in a large city, I reread the writer of the Trojan war in my leisure. 14. We learn not for life, but for school. 15. While men teach, they learn. 16. Reason will lead me, not fortune. Chapter 9 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. This entire book always praises Roman literature. 2. These men therefore were thanking those goddesses yesterday. 3. I shall now write that about the vices of that queen, and that woman will pay the penalty. 4. Neither man will then give a full supply of money to the other. 5. Can the glory of any land be everlasting? 6. The work of one man will never overcome these troops. 7. The character of that writer was too evil. 8. Nevertheless, no teachers dared to teach true things under that man. 9. Will peace be strong in our fatherland after this victory? 10. While those men remain there, some do nothing, others learn. 11. Cicero de gloria alterius uxorisque scribebat. 12. Tota civitas fratri huius viri soli gratias agebat. 13. Propter istos animos illi nullas copias in haec loca cras ducent. 14. Uterne liber vitia horum temporum vincere poterit? SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Where can I now see those women? 2. This man will lead that virgin into matrimony. 3. I give the palm branch to this decision. 4. We truly love that man’s virtue. 5. You alone can help this man. 6. The punishment of that one man will relieve this illness of the state, but the danger will always remain. 7. These men truly think about the destruction of this state and of the entire world. 8. There is no place for either man in this land. 9. Not only does the outcome teach this – that is the teacher of fools! – but reason also (does). Chapter 10 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. What should the students learn today? 2. The brothers were performing without a plan yesterday. 3. That man often dares to teach the great virtue of work and study. 4. This man wrote about old age; that man of love; and another of liberty. 5. From the books of one man, we shall demonstrate the nature of this plot. 6. Those men alone love victory too much; neither thinks of peace. 7. When will the state listen to any men of great wisdom? 8. Come out of those countries into this safe place with your friends. 9. After a few hours, we were able to find that man’s sister. 10. Your troops will never capture either man there. 11. The other Greek will find the cure for this disease. 12. That writer’s poems are full not only of truth but also of virtue. 13. Sine amicis ad terram tuam tum veniemus. 14. Dum vivebat tamen poteramus nullam pacem habere. explanation 15. Tota civitas haec vitia nunc fugit et semper fugiet. 16. Reginae igitur populoque toti gratias aget. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Avoid the desire for money and glory. 2. I shall do my duty. 3. Your fame and your daughter’s life will come into danger tomorrow. 4. Life is not living but being well. 5. I always begin to speak with great fear. 6. If you guide me, Muse, I shall take the wreath with great praise. 7. Live mindful of the dead; time hurries away. 8. My friends, snatch the opportunity from the hour. 9. Few come to old age. 10. But it flees, meanwhile, time flees. 11. The Fates will find a way. 12. Nature, not rank makes a good man. 13. Compliance produces friends; truth produces hatred. Chapter 11 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. They sent him to her with the other farmer yesterday. 2. You, however, now love his happy daughter. 3. Because of friendship, I do this. What will you do, my friend? 4. Will you dare to send the same letter to him tomorrow? 5. Lead me to his student (to that student), please. 6. After his great labor, we shall give him great thanks. 7. Do you show truth in this book? 8. Therefore, dare to always be the same. 9. Does the nature of our character come from us alone? 10. While reason will lead us, we shall be strong and accomplish many things well. 11. We find that fear in this man. 12. Without labor, however, no peace will come into their state. 13. Eagerness not only for money but also for pleasure drags humans (around) too much; some can overcome these desires, others cannot. 14. Vita eius populo toti semper erat cara. 15. Eas et amicos earum in hoc loco mecum saepe invenies. 16. Nos autem copias eorum in ea via nunc capiemus. 17. Quoniam eadem de te et aliis eius sororibus ei dicebam, frater tuus non audiebat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Your virtue makes me friendly to you. 2. It alone is precious to me. 3. If you healthy, that is well; I am healthy. 4. What is well for you is well for me. 5. “Good-bye.” “And you good-bye (well).” 6. What do these men now think of you? 7. Everyone thinks the same thing. 8. I see that none of them is a friend of you today. 9. The men were able to see Cicero’s head on the Rostra. 10. Not all men love the same things or have the same desires and pursuits. 11. I can live neither with you nor without you. 12. A true friend is a “second self.” Chapter 12 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. You then wrote to us about the pleasures of youth. 2. The other daughter’s reasons yesterday were not the same. 3. No one had fled into this street from the other gate. 4. But those men came to us recently with his doctor. 5. Those youths used to come to us often on account of friendship. 6. We sensed the same fear in that consul. 7. After a few hours, Caesar captured Asia. 8. That blessed woman alone has felt a great longing for peace. 9. Have you been able to lead a good life without any liberty? 10. Therefore truth was dear to the entire populace. 11. Neither doctor had heard the father’s name. 12. Regina illa amica ibi non diu remansit. 13. Matres nostrae naturam illius loci non intellexerant. 14. Nullam autem culpam in patriae capite nostrae inveneramus. 15. Eam mecum ad illum mittebant. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. In the beginning, God created the sky and the earth; and God created man. 2. In the triumph, Caesar displayed this placard: “I came, I saw, I conquered.” 3. He lived well, while he lived. 4. A young man wishes to live long; an old man has lived long. 5. That man did not live for a long time, but he was for a long time. 6. Hurray, you have spoken finely! 7. Sophocles made tragedies to extreme old age. 8. They poured forth not only money but also their life for the fatherland. 9. Kings held Rome from the beginning; Lucius Brutus gave freedom to the Romans. 10. However, we lost our freedom under Caesar. 11. When liberty will have fallen, no one will dare to speak freely. Chapter 13 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. The consuls joined themselves neither with you nor with those others. 2. The entire Roman populace has lost its liberty. 3. The evil king has never been able to seize me myself. 4. At that time, you fled to their father and mother through that place. 5. The gods create souls and send them into the bodies of men from the sky. 6. They themselves have recently conquered him in Asia by themselves. 7. On the way, Cicero saw her doctor, not his own. 8. No one was able to love the bitter daughter of the consul himself for long. 9. These men joined Cicero with themselves, for they had always esteemed him. 10. The woman had sent her letter before that time. 11. That man had a good old age, for he had lived well. 12. The mother understood her son well, and the young man thanked her for her patience. 13. Illi autem adulescentes ad Caesarem ipsum heri venerunt. 14. Cicero igitur nomen eius cum suo numquam iunget. 15. Cicero se semper dilexit et tu etiam te diligis. 16. Cicero suos laudabat libros et nunc laudo libros meos. 17. Consul Cicero ipse numquam librum eius viderat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. He himself was hastening to them and sent the horsemen ahead of himself. 2. They could do nothing by themselves without him. 3. He recognized his own seal and his own letter from the beginning. 4. Each loves himself, because each is precious to himself by himself. 5. Out of the fault of another, a wise man corrects his own. 6. Withdraw into your very self. 7. The very spirit nourishes itself. 8. A learned man always has riches in himself. Chapter 14 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. He seized a great portion of those cities after many years, by means of force and a plan. 2. Before the eyes of Caesar himself, we ran across the road and fled with friends. 3. No one sees their own faults, but each person (sees) those of another. 4. Has he recently warned them about the strength of those cities in Asia? 5. But they themselves had sustained their citizens’ liberty with great care. 6. We have derived many of our cities’ names from the names of ancient cities. 7. A portion of the citizens has seized wealth and run through the city to the sea. 8. Today, the many clouds in the sky are a sign of the gods’ harsh anger. 9. That animal fell there yesterday and dragged itself across the ground from the field. 10. Ille tyrannus malus non diu iura horum civium conservavit. 11. Magna vis artium est. 12. Uxor eius cum amicis suis ibi stabat et illud cum patientia faciebat. 13. Cicero de sua vita mortisque natura idem sentiebat et dicebat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. And God named the waters the seas in the beginning. 2. The land itself then created men and animals. 3. Pan guards sheep and the blessed masters of the sheep. 4. A little ant hauls great loads with its mouth. 5. I am holding a wolf by the ears. 6. That man has a great crowd of clients with him. 7. No one has been able to conquer this man by means of force or money. 8. His mind was ignorant of evil arts. 9. A great part of me will avoid death. 10. You, learned friends; always study the Greek originals with care. 11. We accomplish great things not through strength and swiftness of our bodies, but through wisdom and feeling and art. 12. Those people change their sky, not their spirit, if they run across the sea. Chapter 15 discussion discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Those five women were not afraid of death among those animals. 2. Two of the sons were running from the gate through the fields with their father yesterday and they fell into the water. 3. The first king threw riches into the sea, for he feared the great anger and power of the crowd. 4. No one will conquer the same part of Asia in one year. 5. The Romans joined four of the cities with the first road. 6. And so, you sent his thousands of books from the city across Italy. 7. We preserved the liberty and rights of these cities from the arts of war. 8. The Greek gods often did not conduct themselves with virtue among men. 9. Cicero led thousands of Romans by the power of his thoughts. 10. The doctor’s opinions never made him dear to me. 11. Tyrannus tribus amicis illis vitam suam committebat. 12. Avarus numquam satis habet divitiarum. 13. Eo tempore matrem eorum illis sex litteris servavimus. 14. Decem urbium cives amicis vicerunt. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. I have long been on that ship and because of the storm and clouds, I kept expecting death. 2. We came to that city in seven hours. 3. Italy was full of the Greek arts in those times, and many Romans themselves cultivated these arts. 4. They kept hesitating between war and peace. 5. In that time, I was driving that man out of the city. 6. Each wretch kept saying: “I am a Roman citizen.” 7. My girl used to love her sparrow, and the sparrow used to chirp only to her and it did not move away from her lap. 8. My sons used to love my brother, they shunned me; they used to call me a bitter father and awaited my death. But now, I have changed my behavior and tomorrow I shall drag my two sons (back) to me. 9. Since he was afraid to entrust his head to a barber, the tyrant Dionysius taught his daughters to cut his beard and hair; and so the maidens used to cut their father’s beard and hair. Chapter 16 discussion discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Brave men and women lived before our time. 2. He sent those one hundred miserable old men away from Italy, across the troublesome seas yesterday. 3. Those two men threw out all desire from within themselves, for they feared the nature of the body. 4. The powerful queen, since she loved herself, shunned those three men and never joined (herself) with them. 5. And so I stood among them there and, with a brave spirit, long waited for a sign. 6. The quick rumor ran by the mouths and ears of all without delay. 7. The fore of a fierce war, however, changed his life in a few hours. Five of the sailors pulled themselves out of the water and entrusted themselves to mighty Caesar. 9. Caesar could not join his own troops with the swift troops of the king. 10. Themistocles then named all of the citizens and kept their names by keen memory. 11. In the sky, there are many clouds and the farmer’s animals are not well on account of the bad storm. 12. Pater materque saepe ad urbem cum duabus filiabus dulcibus veniebant. 13. Animi virorum feminarumque fortium tempora difficilia numquam timebunt. 14. Intellegitne omnia iura nunc horum quattuor virorum? 15. Non poterat medicus puellam fortem adiuvare, nam mors erat celeris. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. How sweet liberty is! 2. Work conquered all things. 3. Fortune helps the strong. 4. How swift and sharp the mind is! 5. Polyphemus was a horrendous, hideous, huge monster. 6. Woman is always a fickle and changeable thing. 7. It is easy to write epigrams neatly, but to write a book is difficult. 8. Anger is a brief madness; manage your spirit. 9. The poetic art is to not say everything. 10. Nothing is happy from every part. explanation 11. My book nourishes human beings with prudent advice. 12. The mother of all good arts is wisdom. 13. Mercy makes the king safe; for the love of all citizens is a king’s impregnable defense. 14. Life is short; art, long. 15. The brief period of life, however, is long enough to live well. 16. He lives and will live through the memory of all the ages. Chapter 17 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Also strong is the power of the arts which always nourish us. 2. However, they had begun to join (themselves) with the wretched men. 3. For in that time, a share of the people in Italy never held the rights of the citizens. 4. We are beginning to understand truth, which should always direct our minds and without which, we are unwell. 5. How difficult it is to derive good or pleasant things from war. explanation 6. A hundred of the men feared death for a long time and expected no mercy. 7. The boy feared his mother who often neglected him. 8. Among all the dangers, that woman composed herself with wisdom. 9. And so, the swift rumor of harsh death ran through the giant cities. 10. Since the memory of our actions is pleasant, we are now happy and will live old age happy. 11. Many audience members feared the harsh satires which the poet was reciting. 12. Potentes viros quorum urbem vi regebant timebant. 13. Illas tres feminas iucundas quibus amicitiam nostram dederamus iuvare coepimus. 14. Illum librum quocum nostram libertatem delere incipit timemus, SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Hello, good friend, to whom I entrusted my son yesterday. 2. Dionysius, of whom I previously spoke, sailed through a storm from Greece to Sicily. 3. Many citizens either do not see the dangers that impend or disregard those that they see. 4. He who gives quickly gives twice. 5. He who has begun has half of the deed. Begin! 6. Fortune is trivial: it quickly demands back what it has given. 7. Fortune makes stupid him whom she loves too much. 8. Not only is fortune blind, but it also makes those who it always helps blind. 9. He who conquers himself in victory conquers twice. 10. Pretense destroys truth; without which, the name of “friendship” cannot have power. 11. I truly loved that man’s virtue, which did not perish with his body. 12. Avoid the crowd. Live with these men who can make you better; let in those whom you can make better. Chapter 18 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Many are excessively terrified even by an easy death. 2. The happy memory of sweet friendships will never be destroyed. 3. That blind woman also understood all types of the arts and was always praised by her pleasant friends. 4. Your old father, by whom we were often helped, began to say many things about the swift dangers of the vast sea yesterday. 5. Our minds are quickly moved by the strong memory of those two deeds. 6. The queen’s plans were destroyed by that third long and difficult war. 7. And so, the mother was expecting her fourth son’s death, who was not well and whose life was short. 8. We never waged difficult wars without wisdom and mercy. 9. Tomorrow, they will drag you with nine of the other wretches to Caesar. 10. They threw out the harsh king from their city, who had neglected his duties. 11. The poet wrote in the third booklet of satires about greedy men who want to sail to a hundred other lands because they desire money too much. 12. Et civibus aliarum urbium clementia ab eis dabitur. 13. Multi nimis saepe pecunia sed non veritate moventur. 14. Civitas delebitur a rege potenti, quem timere incipiunt. 15. Illae decem feminae consiliis illius generis levis non terrebantur. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. They can because they seem to be able. 2. Even brave men are often frightened by sudden dangers. 3. Your plans are clear to us; you are restrained by the knowledge of all of these citizens. 4. Bad is the plan that cannot be changed. 5. It is right to be taught by an enemy. 6. In that time were the circus games, by which trivial type of spectacle I am never held. 7. This is now my life: I receive and greet good men who come to me; then I either write or read; after these things, all time is given to the body. 8. Therefore death is nothing, since the nature of the spirit is considered mortal. 9. Love cannot be mixed with fear. 10. Truly, temerity is never mixed together with wisdom. 11. We praise one who is not affected by money. 12. He is praised by these men; blamed by those. 13. Probity is praised – then left in the cold (i.e. neglected). Chapter 19 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Who began to destroy their freedom at that time? 2. Whose liberty was then destroyed by that author? 3. What good books did the blind poet recite yesterday? 4. Tomorrow, the women will read the difficult books that you sent. 5. All rivers flow into the ocean and are mixed with it. 6. And so, we ourselves never long for that type of trifling game(s), which used to be praised by many families. 7. The boys and girls have been praised by their mothers and fathers because of good deeds. 8. Why did those men fear truth, by which many had been helped? 9. An enemy then sailed across an vast river in Greece. 10. What brave and famous man, of whom you have read, was waiting for a brief life and swift death? 11. What serious studies always delight you, or which do you now desire? 12. Quid vidit sex qui hoc paraverat? 13. Quid heri neglectum est a secundo discipulo? 14. Scientia iuti sumus quae ab eo neglecta erat. 15. Cuius consilia senes omnium urbium timuerunt? Quae dilexerunt? SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. What is the nature of the soul? It is mortal. 2. Those proofs seemed both serious and clear. 3. What must we do against those men and their crimes? 4. What have I done? Into what danger have I been thrown? 5. O immortal gods! In what city do we live? What state do we have? What crimes do we see? 6. Who are good citizens if they are not those who remember gifts for the fatherland? 7. Other things, which are provided by money, have been provided by that fool; but his character was not able to provide true friends. Chapter 20 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Even old men often lack the fruits of wisdom, plans and certain proof(s). 2. Either the huge mountains or swift rivers that were flowing down from the mountains were keeping the enemy back from the city. 3. Since he was doing deeds too brave, his life was short. 4. That doctor was able to accomplish many things with her right hand, but few things with her left hand. 5. The truth will soon free us from the grim dread which we have long feared. 6. By what types of harmful crimes were those two states destroyed? 7. What mortal can be happy without friendship, probity, and kindness into others? 8. The father began to move money out of Greece into his own country, for his family wanted to go away. 9. By whom was the study of the difficult arts neglected in that time? 10. When that famous author’s verses were read, the audience members were delighted. 11. They quickly threw themselves to the judges’ knees, who demonstrated no mercy however. 12. Non possumus fructus pacis habere, nisi ipsi nostras familias metu gravi liberamus. 13. Illae manus virorum feminarumque infortunatarum aliis venient ad nos ab patriis in quibus carent fructibus civitatis. 14. Nec ludis nec studiis gravibus senes carebant. 15. Quis coepit nostros timores communes sentire sceleris gravis? SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Horns defend a stag from dangers. 2. Oedipus deprived himself of (his own) two eyes. 3. In the Persian war, Themistocles freed Greece from slavery. 4. Demosthenes used to recite many verses in one breath. 5. I hate Persian pomp. 6. That man lacks common sense. 7. Old age deprives us of all pleasures and is not far from death. 8. No accuser lacks fault; we all have sinned. 9. No part of life can be free from duty. 10. The primary virtue is to lack vice. 11. A man free from crime does not need javelins, nor a bow. 12. Great uprisings were stirring up the city in that time. 13. A letter to the senate and people of the Allobroges had been written by the hands of the conspirators themselves. Chapter 21 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. However, praise is too often neither reliable nor great. 2. Old men in our tribe never used to be neglected by their sons. 3. Who had been ordered at that time to free Greece from fear, defend the families, and keep the enemy from the fatherland? 4. For the sake of the common good, he commanded those conspirators to leave from the city and be taken across the river to the mountains. 5. The other authors began to move our spirits against the senate’s judgment and arguments again, because everyone had been terrified by a new fear. 6. All types of slavery seem harsh to us. 7. Will Cicero consequently be seized out of the hands of those men? 8. What end of fear and slavery can now be seen in that state? 9. But, for the sake of a good old age, we must live well now. 10. In their family were two daughters and also four sons. 11. Our neighbor’s house had few windows through which he could see. 12. When he heard the horn, the old men fell onto his knees and proclaimed his thanks to the immortal gods. 13. Because of the tyrant’s gifts and common sense, few men hates him. 14. Veritas sine magno labore non invenietur. 15. Multae patriae bellis delentur quae vera pace egent. 16. Metus eorum nunc possunt vinci quod facta nostra ab omnibus intelleguntur. 17. Nisi studia gravia nos delectant, saepe negleguntur pecuniae causa aut laudis. SENENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Never is danger conquered without danger. 2. Novius is my neighbor and with my right hand, he can be touched from my windows. 3. Won’t the judges order this man to be led in chains and carried off in chains to death? 4. The former era is worn out by civil wars and Rome itself is destroyed by its own strength. 5. But friendship is excluded from no place; it is never untimely or improper; it contains many gifts. 6. Future things cannot be known. 7. In the beginning, the world itself was made for the sake of gods and men, and those things which are in it were provided towards the benefit of man. 8. How copiously agriculture is praised by Xenophon in that book which is entitled “Oeconomicus”. 9. The common people want to be deceived. 10. Where are knowledge and wisdom found? 11. Truth is distressed too often; it is never extinguished. Chapter 22 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Our neighbors immediately threw themselves onto their knees and praised all the gods in the world. 2. The Greek peoples were enclosed by huge mountains and small borders. 3. Who has order that republic to be freed from harsh servitude? 4. “That man,” he said, “will be destroyed by his own crimes in a short time.” 5. The same things will again be prepared other bands of bad citizens; we shall defend the republic and those (citizens) will quickly go away. 6. Age often keeps the old from the center of affairs. 7. But serious matters are conducted neither by force nor by hope, but by judgment. 8. If you (will) neglect these two poets’ verses, you will lack a great part of Roman literature. 9. At that time, our hopes for the common safety were maintained by your faith, our spirits were uplifted, and our fears were left behind. 10. New types of crimes are being found in this city because many even now lack good character and common sense and they have a wicked nature. 11. The common people were throwing many things out of the windows of their houses. 12. Magna fides nunc in hac re publica invenire potest. 13. Spes novae eius metu communi deletae erant rerum incertarum. 14. Hoc die animi fidesque Romanorum virorum et feminarum fortium ab omnibus visae erant. 15. Tyrannus magna cum spe naves illas deleri iussit. 16. Non potuit manu sinistra aut dextra se defendere. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. While there is life, there is hope. 2. Keep a calm spirit in difficult matters. 3. Where there is a tyrant, there clearly is no republic. 4. There were once men of great virtue and of ancient fidelity in this republic. 5. We want this republic to be safe. 6. The conspirators’ hope is nourished by the mild opinions of many citizens. 7. On that day, the republic was rescued from the fire and the sword by my plans. 8. Because they hate war, with hope they kept laboring for peace. 9. Tell me in good faith: did you not snatch that money out of his right hand? 10. A certain friend is distinguished in an uncertain affair. 11. Homer carries off the listener into the middle of things. 12. Blessed is he who can understand the causes of things; and fortunate is he who loves the ancient gods. 13. Our Stoic says, “Vice is not in things but in the spirit itself.” 14. I subject things to even myself, not myself to things. 15. There is a method in things; there are clear boundaries, beyond which virtue cannot be found. 16. Does this seem fair to you, Fortune? Chapter 23 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. I determine nothing before it has been heard. 2. You did not help that orator seeking the end of wars and crimes in the middle of the senate. 3. The certain benefits of peace used to be wanted by the frightened commoners and also by the senate. 4. What brave man will free the other peoples from the heavy dread of servitude? 5. No one ignoring faith will ever lack fear. 6. That fortunate woman once supported these plans against those evil men and, for the sake of the common safety, she was always working. 7. Since they were about to suppress that Latin tribe and seize riches, they began to pursue and exterminate all men of great probity. 8. Is the fame of this doctor being uplifted by those verses? 9. But a life of that calm manner contains something pleasant and happy. explanation 10. On what day were you rescued from the fire, the sword, and also certain death? 11. Nos dedimus multa gentibus spe carentibus. 12. Illi decem viri, vocati, magno cum studio iterum venient. 13. Per fenestram secundum senem ex casa vicini et ab urbe currentem viderunt. 14. Ipse metu incerto superatus est quod nec veritatem nec libertatem desiderabat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. You will live, suppressed by my guards. 2. But those men extending their right hands were seeking safety. 3. Tantalus, being thirsty, kept desiring to touch the rivers hurrying away from his mouth. explanation 4. The signs of things about to be are shown to the world by the gods. 5. Captured Greece has captured its fierce conqueror. 6. Atticus gave much money to Cicero, (who was) fleeing out of the fatherland. 7. If you will entrust him to me to be brought up, I shall begin to form his studies from infancy. 8. Use the eraser often; you are about to write a good little book. 9. The anxiety of the orator about to speak delights those about to listen. 10. I always weep over the death of Socrates, while reading Plato. 11. The memory of a life well lived and many things well done is satisfying. 12. He who will live frightened, will not ever be free. 13. He who does something when ordered is not wretched, but he who does [when] unwilling (is). 14. A word, once sent out, flies [about], irrevocable. Chapter 24 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. With the fire having been seen, all the men and their wives were terrified and they sailed beyond the city to the island’s shore, where shelter was found. 2. With the people suppressed by fear, that emperor must be driven out of the city by us. 3. With the sign given by the priest, the orator came back on that day and now the entire Latin nation rejoices. 4. The Roman people formerly received that writer’s verses with great praise. 5. Praises and gifts of this type used to be desired by orators. 6. With imperium taken, the magnanimous leader is showing his fidelity to the republic. 7. Someone had ordered the five horses to be rescued from the fire afterwards. 8. Do you all the things which should be known by you? 9. That man, returning from the city’s citadel, began to be pursued by those men. 10. I wish to touch that soldier’s hand who was without fear and also suppressed serious crimes against the republic. 11. That leader was immediately expelled just as he was taking control. 12. However, those slaves were seeking refuge and relief from their friends. 13. After the horn was heard, that soldier, unsure of the plan, turned the troops to the middle of the island. 14. Periculo communi averso, duo ex filiis omnesque filiae nostrae ab Asia revenerunt. 15. Illis tribus malis nostrae spes non delendae sunt. 16. Populis omnium patriarum pacem quarentibus, omnes duces cupiditatem imperii vincere debent. 17. Expulsus a liberis et servis dux imperium recipere non poterat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Carthage is to be destroyed. 2. With Asia conquered, the fortunate Roman general sent many slaves into Italy. 3. With everyone thoroughly terrified by the soldier’s sword, each wished to save himself. 4. Whatever must be said, I shall freely say it. 5. All these wounds of war must now be healed by you. 6. I shall fear neither civil war nor a soldier’s spear nor a violent death, with Augustus holding the nation. 7. After Tarquinius was driven out, the Roman people could not hear the name of a king. 8. All decisions and deeds are to be directed by us toward the advantage of life. Chapter 25 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. “Each one,” he said, “always thinks that his own affairs are great.” 2. Afterwards, we heard that the slaves had worked for the sake of gifts, just as the loyal soldiers had reported yesterday. 3. Our neighbors then averted the fire’s power with great courage, because they desired praise and also gifts. 4. This symbol of danger will touch our entire nation, unless we are able to drive the enemy out of the city and away from Italy. 5. With Carthage’s savage leader expelled, the hopes and faith of magnanimous men will hold together the fatherland. 6. Why did the pleasant Horace use to always show and mock human faults in satires? 7. We believe the ancient faith should again be supported by all the tribes. 8. The general, sent to the senate, accepted imperium and was made emperor. 9. The republic, as he says, can be destroyed by little books of this manner. 10. Some deny that conquered enemies should ever be oppressed by slavery. 11. They believe that the wise teacher is about to expose the truth. 12. Whoever will accept the truth will be well educated. 13. Cogitavimus tuas sorores scribere illas litteras. 14. Litteras scriptas esse a serva forti ostendent. 15. Dixit litteras numquam esse scriptas. 16. Speramus uxorem iudicis scripturam cras esse duas litteras illas. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. He did not then say that it had not been done. 2. With these things announced, you knew that he was an enemy. 3. Now you understand that he is awaited by the enemy. 4. I saw that they had remained in the city and were with us. 5. And so I perceive that an eternal war with evil citizens will be undertaken by me. 6. I believe the same thing must be done by you. 7. I used to know that you were truly loyal to me. 8. With the enemy turning itself into a state, the senate announced to Cincinnatus that he had been made a dictator. 9. I say that you, Pyrrhus, can conquer the Romans. 10. Stranger, tell Sparta that you saw us lying here, loyal to the fatherland. 11. Socrates thought himself to be a citizen of the entire world. 12. Those teachers say that no one can be good unless he is wise. 13. I say, however, that death is not to be feared. 14. I believe that the immortal gods sowed spirits into human bodies. 15. A youth hopes that he will live long; an old man can say that he has lived long. 16. Indeed, they say that much is to be ready, not many. Chapter 26 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. That leader did not know that he was about to take up command immediately. 2. “Some,” he said, “once used to seek power and wish to oppress free men.” 3. On the same day, ten thousand of the enemy were turned away and driven out by the most loyal leader; many soldiers had received wounds and were lying in the fields. 4. With the fierce tyrant’s death announced, each turned (himself) with great hope to the most capable orator. 5. Laughing, the wise author of that story then told something rather pleasant. 6. With these things heard, the twin young men will abandon the study of literature because of the desire for money. 7. The very brave queen of Carthage afterwards showed that her faith was always dearer to herself than riches. 8. She said that she had never seen a slave more trustworthy than this one. 9. A more pleasant way of life must now be sought by men. 10. We believe that those twenty free men and women lead as pleasant a life as possible. 11. The emperor sent a hundred very strong soldiers before himself yesterday. 12. The light in that house was not very bright, because the family had opened few windows. 13. He took his sad friends, invited them to the table, and gave them refuge and shelter here. 14. Quid dulcius vita iucundissima est? 15. Quidam autem dicunt mortem esse dulciorem quam vitam. 16. Ubi haec tria signa certissima nuntiata erant, a potentissimo duce consilium solaciumque petivimus. 17. Hac in fabula auctor narrat omnes quam beatissimas petere vitas. 18. Haec lux semper est clarior altera. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Old age is quite talkative. 2. All your plans are clearer to us than light. 3. Some cures are graver than the dangers themselves. 4. On that day, I called the bravest and most patriotic (i.e. most loving of the fatherland) to me. 5. A willing man who has accepted imperia avoids the harshest part of servitude. 6. The most pleasant gifts, as they say, are always those which the giver himself makes dear (to himself). 7. A fortunate and wise man avoids the forum and the haughty thresholds of powerful citizens. 8. What is more shameful than to be deceived by someone? 9. What truly is more foolish than to hold the unsure for the sure, the false for the true? 10. O most dear friend, you often say to me: “Write something great; you are a most lazy man.” 11. Words move quickly; but a stenographer’s hand is swifter than those; not my tongue, but his hand, completes the work. 12. Many think that matters of war are more serious than matters of the city; but this opinion must be changed, for many matters of the city are more serious and more evident than those of war. 13. Invited to dinner, with your left hand you took away the careless men’s napkins. You think this is witty? It is a very mean thing! And so return me my napkin. Chapter 27 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Each wants to give the finest and most useful gifts possible. 2. Some shameful men have (very) many things but also seek (rather) many things. 3. That orator, expelled by the most arrogant tyrant, then sought a more agreeable leader and fairer laws. 4. The highest power is always to be sought by the best men. 5. The old man opened his house to his sad grandsons and invited them across the threshold. 6. He showed that enemy had given the last signal on that night with a very bright light. 7. That very bad tyrant denied that he had ever oppressed the free men. 8. The most loyal slave kept receiving more dinner at the table than the three worse (slaves). 9. They say that this author leads a very humble life here. 10. Why did the gods above avert their eyes from human affairs at that time? 11. Do you hold money and your own affairs before the republic? 12. We can see the sun behind a few very graceful clouds in the sky today. 13. Quidam credunt urbes maximas peiores esse minimis. 14. Pro tribus donis minoribus adulescens matri tristissimae plura etiam et belliora dedit. 15. Illi montes maximi quam hi altiores fuerunt. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. A new force draws me: I see many (rather) good things and I approve, but I do so many (rather) bad things and I do not know why. 2. Some poems are good; rather many are bad. 3. It is the best. I have seen nothing better, nothing finer than this. 4. I hope that you will have both this birthday and (very) many other happy (as possible) ones. 5. Since judgment and reason are in the old, our ancestors called the senate the highest council. 6. More effort and zeal should be put by us in domestic matters even than in military matters. 7. For neither was the danger ever graver in the republic, nor the laziness greater. 8. We are wiser than those men, because we know that nature is the best guide. 9. Nature asks very little; but a wise man adapts himself to nature. 10. The greatest remedy for anger is delay. 11. I do not compare a man who conquers his pride and contains his anger with the greatest men, but I say that he is similar to a god. 12. Dionysius, a tyrant of a most beautiful city, was a man of great temperance in his way of life and in all things the most diligent and keenest. Nevertheless, the same man was fierce and unjust. Out of which thing, if we speak the truth, he seemed very wretched. 13. If I cannot change the gods, I shall stir up Acheron. Chapter 28 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Let a wise and careful author avoid the base and approve the good. 2. And so, let us do even greater and better things for the fatherland. 3. Let your grandson leave the table so as not to hear those harsh words. 4. Let a proud emperor not believe himself to be more fortunate than the most humble man. 5. Each seeks the happiest and most elegant way of life possible. 6. Some offer kindnesses and pleasures to others so that they may receive similar kindnesses. 7. Many doctors think that the sun’s light was the best (i.e. prime) remedy. 8. They will give imperium to a rather powerful leader so he may turn away the fiercest enemy. 9. With these sad words announced, a faction of the enemy left behind their own two generals. 10. The ancestors used to think that the gods above had the most beautiful and strongest human bodies. 11. His modest wife then recommended these ten very useful things. 12. Ne putet illas leges dissimiles esse [peiores quam alias] / [peiores aliis]. 13. Illi ut faciant hanc rem facillimam in foro decem viros solos mittent. 14. “Appellemus,” inquiunt, “clarissimum imperatorem superbissimum ne e patria expellamur.” 15. Itaque ne hanc sapientissimam feminam atque optimam ab cena discedere iubeant. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Let reason lead, not luck. 2. Let arms yield to the toga. 3. Now leave from the city so that I may not be suppressed by fear and weapons. 4. Now one thing must be done by me immediately in order to have the greatest peace and solace. 5. Let us take the opportunity from the day, my friends. 6. Truly, the body is in need of sleep and many other things in order to be strong; the spirit nourishes itself. 7. Let him who gave a gift be silent; let him who received it speak. 8. Let us speak nothing except good of the dead. 9. Let a parent neither have vices himself, nor tolerate them. 10. In this matter, reason must be had so that admonition may not lack acerbity. 11. Women always come to the game to watch – and also to be watched themselves. 12. Of arms and a man I sing, who first came from the shores of Troy to Italy. Chapter 29 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. The commander put better weapons in the soldiers’ hands, so that they could frighten the enemy. 2. Indeed, the enemy denied that they had different weapons. 3. A portion of the soldiers avoided the light of day, lest they be seen here. 4. They used to call the sun the first light of the sky above, the moon the first light of the evening, and the stars the eyes of the night. 5. Let those youths finally yield to wisdom so they may be happier than these ones. 6. Wise men consider kindnesses to be more powerful than harsh and shameful words. 7. A certain teacher spoke such harsh words to the students that they left. 8. They answered that the creator of these nine cures was the ablest doctor. 9. Nothing is indeed so easy that we can accomplish it without labor. 10. In return for labor and zeal, our fatherland offers us (very) many good opportunities. 11. The parents gave (very) many kisses to their thin daughter, in whom they always found the greatest delight. 12 Erant verba philosophi difficillima, ut audientes ea discere non possent. 13. Duae feminae haec cupivere intellegere ne agerent vitas turpis. 14. Illae ita dulces quattuor uxores erant ut plurima beneficia acciperent. 15. Tertium scriptoris carmen dixit esse tam pulchrum ut milium civium delectaret mentes. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Loves conquers all things; and let us yield to Love. 2. I have founded the most famous city; I have seen my city-walls; I have completed the courses which the Fates had given. 3. You were so stern that neither by love nor by prayers could you be softened. 4. Certainly no one is so fierce that he cannot be softened, with culture having been given. 5. It is difficult to not write a satire; for who is so tolerant the evil city that he can restrain himself? 6. There once was such great virtue in this republic that brave men would press back a pernicious citizen with harsher punishments than the bitterest enemy. 7. So remarkable is the recovery of liberty that not even death is to be fled in this matter. 8. Let the reasons for my dangers not defeat the republic’s advantage. 9. In that time, the Athenians showed so much virtue that they could overcome tenfold the number of the enemy, and they so terrified them that they fled back into Asia. 10. Let the orator seek a worthy example from Demosthenes, in whom such great study and such great effort are said to have existed, so that he might overcome the impediments of nature by diligence and industry. 11. Let your precepts be brief so the students’ minds may learn quickly they may keep them in lasting memory. 12. Nothing is so difficult it cannot be investigated with zeal. 13. However, let war be thus undertaken so that nothing except peace seems to have been sought. 14. So great is the force of probity that we love it even in an enemy. Chapter 30 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. He asked where those two worthy students had learned these things. 2. He was seeing how much force there was of those happy words. 3. He suddenly exposed this treachery so the republic would not be suppressed. 4. Let these men be silent and the three others be driven out lest they have a similar opportunity. 5. So unfeeling was he that he could not understand his wife’s kindnesses. 6. The rest of them indeed did not know how keen their daughter’s mind was. 7. Finally the leader will learn why the braver portion of the soldiers avoids us. 8. Now I know why illustrious deeds are truly not the easiest. 9. Certain authors were calling weapons the best remedy for evils. 10. Let us dedicate these weapons to the dead lest they lack honor. 11. With Fate as a guide, Romulus and Remus founded Rome; and, after Remus was killed, the walls of the new city rose quickly. 12. Dic mihi in quibus terris libertas inveniatur. 13. Nescivimus nos ubi ferrum denique positum esset. 14. Ille verba prima libelli non comprehendit quem de sideribus scripserunt. 15. Rogabant quare non posses quod ceteri fecissent discere. 16. Omnes quaerant meliora quam pecuniam aut imperium ut feliciores sint spiritus sui. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Now you see how much crime against the republic and our laws has been proclaimed to you. 2. Let me immediately say how sweet liberty is to you. 3. He asked why they ever left the city. 4. Now I know what love is. 5. Let us see which man could write more here, in the middle of the forum. 6. Many were doubting what was best. 7. Let me begin to explain whence nature creates and sustains all things. 8. It is pleasant to see which evils you yourself lack. 9. I have read the historian of the Trojan war again, who says what is fine, what is shameful, what is useful, what is not. 10. You will ask the learned by what reason you can lead the course of life well, whether teaching provides virtue or nature and character give it, what can soften concerns, what can make you a friend to yourself. 11. Those men, however, ask how much you have, not why and whence. 12. He who searches for the limit of insane love errs: true love knows that no one has measure. 13. But now it is time that I leave to drink the hemlock, and that you leave to live your life. But which is better, the immortal gods know; I certainly believe that no human being knows. Chapter 31 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Now we certainly know that those harsh minds offer the sword in exchange for peace. 2. Let the twin daughters not learn words so harsh and so unfeeling. 3. When these ten men had left the city-walls once and for all, another opportunity for peace was never offered. 4. He will bring back so much help to us that not even the most eager soldiers can fight or stay here. 5. He asked why the rest of the women showed so much hope in our presence and they brought such great hope to us. 6. Though our fatherland offers such great kindnesses, nevertheless some secretly betake themselves into treachery and will soon fight against good men. 7. Let us hear at last how much treachery there is and how many conspirators rise against the state. 8. I exposed these crimes suddenly so that you would not suffer other and similar ones. 9. They answered that the (very) many weapons were carried to the shore by soldiers and put onto ships. 10. When their parents were alive, they were happy; dead, they are also happy. 11. I do not know whether the three conspirators remain or rushed into exile. 12. Let us go to dinner, my friends, drink much wine, spend the night, and diminish our concerns. 13. Cum comprehensi essent milites mox nobis obtulerunt pecuniam. 14. Cum vita ferat difficillima ea omnia feramus nosque ipsos dedicemus philosophiae. 15. Cum scias quod feratur auxilium a sex amicis nostris, haec scelera cum animis possunt ferri. 16. Cum non videre oculi eius solis lucem possent, tamen ille humilis plurima atque difficillima faciebat. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Can this light be pleasant to you, though you know that all these men are familiar with your plans? 2. Themistocles, though he had freed Greece from Persian slavery and because of jealousy had been driven into exile, did not bear the injury to his ungrateful fatherland that he should have borne. 3. Since these things are so, Catiline, betake yourself into exile. 4. O ship of state, the new waves of war will carry you back into the sea! O what are you doing? Whence will there be any shelter? 5. Though the republic should be imperishable, I grieve that she lacks health and depends on one mortal’s life. 6. When he knew that man was a slave, he did not hesitate to arrest him. 7. That arrested man, though at first he began to respond impudently, denied nothing at last, however. 8. Milo is said to have come through the stadium when he carried an ox on his shoulders. 9. What evening and sleep bring, it is uncertain. 10. Bring as much help to that poor man as you can. 11. I know this one thing: what the Fates bring, we shall bear it with a calm spirit. 12. Finally, for this reason we are all slaves of the laws, that we may be free. Chapter 32 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. At first, those three ridiculous men could not even bear moderate risk bravely and were not willing to offer any aid. 2. We especially asked how much help the seven women were bringing and whether they were hesitating or soon helping us. 3. At last, with the weapons brought together, the emperor promised that ten thousand soldiers would leave very quickly, so long as they received enough supplies. 4. You therefore prefer to bestow equal kindnesses unto all worthy men. 5. Let them better explain these bad things lest they lessen their wealth or lose their public offices. 6. But we wish to learn why he was so jealous and why his words were so harsh. explanation 7. Since the rest know these plots, he wants to secretly betake himself into exile as swiftly as possible so that he may avoid rumors and hatred. 8. Do many students always show so much zeal that they may be able to read these sentences very easily in one year? 9. Although he had lost his wealth and did not have one as, nevertheless all the citizens were especially praising his nature and character. 10. We shall certainly do more and better things with fair laws than with a sword. 11. Your eyes are more beautiful than the stars of the sky, my girl; you are slender and pretty, and your kisses too are sweeter than wine: let us love beneath the light of the moon. 12. That enemy, coming into Italy with many elephants, at first did not wish to fight and spent (very) many days in the mountains. 13. If your grandson invites you to dinner, he will fill up the table and offer you as much wine as you wish; but do not drink too much. 14. Visne diutius atque melius vivere? 15. Ille quam sapientissime vult dicere ut ei ipsi citissime cedant. 16. Cum haec nota consilia essent rogavimus cur noluisset maxima cum cura exercitum parare. 17. Iste qui erat humillimus nunc tam acriter divitias habere vult ut velit amicos amittere duos optimosque. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Opportunity is not easily provided but is easily and suddenly lost. 2. Now you cannot live with us any longer; do not stay; we will not bear it. 3. Do you wish to live properly? Who doesn’t? 4. You know more what must be done. 5. He told me truthfully what he wanted. 6. Equals with equals are gathered together (congregated) most easily. 7. I love you more than my own eyes. 8. Men easily believe what they want to. 9. Many things happen to men that they want and that they do not want. 10. With judgment, we can contend and win better than with anger. 11. Each best man is more willing to do than to speak. 12. All wise men live happily, completely, and fortunately. 13. They especially praise one who is not moved by money. 14. If you wish to know how there is nothing bad in poverty, compare a poor and a rich man: the poor man laughs more often and more genuinely. 15. Teachers give children cookies so they may be willing to learn the first basics. 16. If you wish to weep for me, first you should grieve for yourself. explanation Chapter 33 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. So long as the army soon brings help, we shall be able to protect the walls of the city. 2. Though you knew the enemy’s plans from the beginning, nevertheless you at first did not wish to offer any aid or send forth even a hundred soldiers. 3. If wealth and jealousy always hold us back from love and honor, are we truly wealthy? 4. A poor man will certainly not be equal to others unless he has knowledge or talent; if he should have these, however, many would be greatly envious. 5. If his treachery were not lying open, we would fear his sword most greatly. 6. If anyone will ask what you are you now learning, answer that you are learning an art not normal, but very useful and very difficult. 7. Let the laws be thus written so that the rich and commoners – even the poor man without an as – may be equals. 8. If stricter and stronger guards had rushed to your house, oh, never would you have undertaken so many crimes and all these men would not have died. 9. Since that very wise woman knew it at one time, she swiftly betook herself and offered all her resources. 10. Harsh exile will not be able to soften so bitter a mind in one year. 11. Because of all the very bad rumors (which were not true), his sweet daughters were weeping very much and could not sleep. 12. Si mox veniant illi philosophi, felicior sis. 13. Nisi prudentissime respondissetis, pacem offerre dubitavissent. 14. Si quis haec tria faciet, melius vivet. 15. Si velletis meliores legere libros, certissime plura disceretis. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. If you wish for peace, prepare for war. 2. Weapons are of little value, if there is really not a plan in the country. 3. Everyone’s safety would certainly have been lost in one night, if that severity had not been undertaken against those men. 4. If you think something can be done about me, you will do it – if you yourself will be free from that danger. 5. If I were conscious of any fault for myself, I would bear it with a calm mind (i.e. equanimity). 6. You say that you truly prefer the prosperity and customs of the ancient plebs; but if someone should urge you to them, you would refuse that way of life. 7. You would err less, if you should now what you do not know. 8. You will say “ah!”, if you will have seen yourself in a mirror. 9. Poverty holds nothing unhappy within itself harsher than that if makes men a laughing-stock. Chapter 34 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Unless someone brings back help to the people or offers the support promised, thousands of men will die. 2. Since the city was full of guards, you did not dare to undertake crimes so grievous as you had wished. 3. Now say why you wish to betake yourself to that rich and fair woman. Speak truthfully and without restraint; do not refuse! 4. After the riches were handed over, alas, those philosophers suddenly set out into exile on the same night , from which they were never able to leave. 5. Let us not permit this most ancient knowledge to be lost. 6. I confess that I shall enjoy pure wine at my house. 7. From the beginning, you have not understood how great an army followed us and how many elephants those soldiers led with themselves. 8. From the start he answered that he did not wish to follow a leader of average virtue or wisdom, when the state was standing on the threshold of war. 9. After suddenly go out of the city, he once tried to die by his own sword. 10. Although Aristotle urged men to virtue, nevertheless he thought that virtue was not born in men. 11. The mother and father now live in the country so they may enjoy sweet relaxation from labors. 12. Please, give me much salt, and wine or water, so I may enjoy dinner very much. 13. Me non passi sunt tum loqui cum eo. 14. Arbitrabamur illum sapientius usurum officio esse. 15. Si quis semel etiam hac aqua utatur moriatur. 16. Si illi quattuor milites nos secuti essent, ponere arma in navis non ausi essemus. 17. Haec bona cena erit dummodo sale utamini. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Let us yield to Apollo and, having been warned, pursue better things. 2. The best is that man who has the least faults; for no one is born without. 3. The world is the common city of the gods and men; therefore only these men using reason live by justice and law. 4. A wise man angers slowly but seriously. 5. When these are so, Catiline, leave the city; the gates lie open; set out; you can no longer stay with us now; I will not bear it, I will not allow it. 6. Care follows growing money and a rich man sleeps badly. 7. If you had set out into Britain, no one on that island so great would have been more skilled in justice. 8. Unless new glory springs forth, even old glory lies dead in the uncertain and is often lost. 9. However, I hope that I have attained in my books such temperance that no good man may be able to complain about them. 10. The hours and days and years certainly depart; neither does past time turn back, nor can what is to follow be known. 11. You know the character of women: while they work, while they exert themselves, while they look in the mirror, a year slips by. 12. Friendship contains (very) many things; not water, not fire, do we benefit from more than friendship. 13. Foolish man! After he began to have riches, he died! 14. O you who have suffered rather burdensome things, a god will give an end to even these things. Chapter 35 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Minerva, the daughter of Jupiter, was born full of knowledge and talent. 2. The guards, if they should speak freely with our leader and try to deliver the tyrant to him, would be able to come out of the city walls immediately without danger. 3. To obey fair laws is better than to serve a tyrant. 4. Since he used his public offices best and always put the state before himself, event he plebs trusted him and did not begrudge him. 5. Having long suffered, your mother died happily, sitting among friends. 6. The philosophers looked at the plan and refused to undertake or work at such a thing. 7. Although you are wealthy and your riches grow, nevertheless you wish to spare your wealth and you will offer an as to no one. 8. Having suddenly set out from that island, he came by ship to the fatherland on the same night; then, seeking relaxation for the spirit, he lived in the country for a long time. 9. Since this soldier did not please your emperor, alas, he lost those promised rewards. 10. Unless morals are equal to knowledge – this should be known by us – knowledge can harm us greatly. 11. The teacher then asked two small boys how many fingers they had. 12. The radiant mother smiles down on her dearest daughter, whom she especially cherishes, and gives her many sweet kisses. 13. Quare nunc vult suis duobus nocere amicis? 14. Plebi nisi parcet, eheu, isti nunquam credemus. 15. Litteris cum studeas Romanis, durissimo servis magistro sed maximo. 16. Si isti nobis vero placere vellent, opibus suis contra civitatem non sic uterentur. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. No one who is a slave to the body is free. 2. You wish to have great imperium? Rule yourself! 3. Whoever has spared the bad harms the good. 4. Though you place all things after money, you are amazed if no one offers you love? 5. They are eager for either money or powers or riches or glory, in vain; rather, let them be eager for virtue and honor and knowledge and some art (or another). 6. Let us trust in virtue better than in Fortune; virtue does not know how to yield to calamity. 7. And God said: “Let us make a man to our image and be before the fish of the sea and the beasts of the land.” 8. Everyone has judged that you should spare me. 9. He showed what he wished to make, and persuaded that slave with the hope of liberty and great rewards. 10. If the books of Cicero are pleasing to someone, let that man know that he has progressed. 11. In our city it befell me to be taught how much the angry Achilles had harmed the Greeks. 12. We obey someone asking better than someone ordering. 13. Live bravely and set your breast(s) firm to the adverse. 14. Not ignorant of misfortune, I learn to help the unfortunate. 15. Forgive the other person often, never yourself. 16. When I seek you, my god, I seek a happy life; let me seek you so my spirit may live. Chapter 36 discussion PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Were you able to persuade even a hundred men to follow the way of virtue without rewards? 2. This woman wishes to go out of the city and set out to that island to marry that man without delay and always rusticate. 3. They were begging us to obey and serve this leader even in adverse matters. 4. These things were done by the women in order to not lose so great an opportunity. 5. We ask you to use your public office and power rather wisely and to always cherish the five friends. 6. Unless someone dares to undertake this, they will not be willing to believe us and will become angry. 7. He asked us why we had tried to please neither the rich nor the poor. 8. He used to think that such a life was born not out of riches but from a spirit full of virtue. 9. Let us admire wisdom and talent more than great riches. 10. The senate ordered the leader not to harm the conquered enemy, but to spare them and give them a remission of punishment. 11. That orator calmed the angriest mob with a powerful voice and, as he smiled down upon everyone, he entertained them. 12. Just as the small girl was running through the door, she suddenly fell and bruised her knees badly. 13. So long as you are fair to these men, they will be made faithful to you. 14. Ea aestate hortati sunt ut hoc melius fieret. 15. Orabunt, dummodo hoc fiat, nos ut illi parcamus. 16. Vult ea magistra persuadere suis viginti discipulis ut pluri studeant litterarum bonarum. 17. Cum fiat spes illius minima, se fateatur imperavisse istis duobus ne id facerent. explanation SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. And God said: “Let light be made.” And light was made. 2. It must be said that nothing can become of nothing. 3. Great things do not happen without risk. 4. With these things known, that man urged his men not to fear. 5. All things will happen which are just to happen. 6. “Father, I beg you to be lenient to me.” “Let it be done.” 7. While we speak, envious age will have fled: seize the day! 8. Let us seize the sweet things; for after death you will become ashes and a story. 9. Before old age, I took care that I might live well; in old age I take care that I may die well. 10. Solon said that he became an old man learning something every day. 11. Does your heart lack empty ambition? Does it lack anger and fear of death? Do you pardon your friends? Are you becoming kinder and better, with old age approaching? 12. This is difficult; but whatever it is wrong to correct is made less burdensome by patience. 13. Let us be wise and leave! The burden that is endured becomes light. 14. I encourage you to place friendship before all human matters – woe to those who have no friends! 15. I beg you to allow me to speak of the studies of culture and literature. Chapter 37 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. At that time, he will beg my brother and sister to seize the day and go into the city as quickly as possible. 2. If you had not returned home this summer, we would have wandered on the long route to Athens, and we would have spent our time pleasantly there. 3. You were not able to endure even slight fears; therefore you always lived in the country, not in the city. 4. Having said these things, they will persuade readers not to put riches and desires before the rewards of a good life. 5. For many years, he forced them to serve the state, but never did he damage their high spirits. 6. But we ourselves, having suffered many evils, tried to persuade those angry men to release the slaves from chains and not to hurt anyone. 7. If anyone wishes to help others, let him take care to approach them full of wisdom. 8. Philosophers used to ask every day whether those students were obedient to nature. 9. Let us contemn all dangers, drive them out of our hearts, and acknowledge that these most difficult things must be undertaken at Rome (or by Rome). 10. Everyone is accustomed to marveling at these very beautiful things which they see at Athens. 11. Unless you prefer to die, go from Syracuse, follow another leader, and go to Athens. 12. A fair woman stood unmoving before a mirror, but she refused to look at herself and she could not renew her courage. 13. For a few hours, the twelve children were sitting on the ground as the teacher, smiling down on them and cheering them, told them (very) many tales. 14. If you are wise and can command yourself, you will become more pleasant and fair, you will be lenient to the unfortunate and cherish your friends. 15. Imperaverunt ut hoc tres dies Romae fieret. 16. Timor sui patris, nisi Syracusas quinque ibit diebus, fiet maior. 17. Illa aestate, arbitrabatur domo fortasse exiturum non esse fratrem suum. 18. Nemini ut cognovimus licet libenter loqui ista in patria. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. Mortal deeds shall perish. 2. For nights and days Pluto’s door lies open. 3. The years go in the manner and way of flowing water. Never can an hour which has passed return; let us enjoy life. 4. Woe, I have died! What have I done! My son has not returned from dinner this night. 5. My brother begs you not to leave home. 6. He says that the father has departed from the city but the brother is at home. 7. On the third hour, I went outside by way of the Via Sacra (Sacred Way), as is my custom. 8. Then Damocles, since he could not be so happy, begged the tyrant Dionysius that it be permitted to leave from supper. 9. At that time after Syracuse was captured, Marcellus sent many things to Rome; but he left behind many and the most beautiful things in Syracuse. 10. For ten days I was on that ship; we experienced such adverse weather. 11. I shall not be able to bear the anger of the people if you will have gone into exile. 12. With Caesar murdered, Brutus fled from Rome to Athens. 13. I would return to Rome myself, if I had enough judgment concerning this matter. 14. No one is so old that he does not think he can live another year. 15. While the Fates allow us, let us satisfy our eyes with love; a long night is coming for you and day (is) not about to return. Chapter 38 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. I have persuaded the king to gladly give (rather) pleasing rewards to your sister and brother. 2. Then, having set out from that island by ship, she entered Athens to see her friends. 3. We urged him to try to approach Caesar without fear. 4. They were used to believing a man who was a slave to philosophy, followed virtue, and overcame desires. 5. The wise man begs us not to harm men of adverse opinions. 6. In those lands, it is not permitted to study good and true literature, as often occurs under a tyrant; therefore, you must go out and journey. 7. Let us be careful not to hand over the state to those who place themselves before the fatherland. 8. There are weak men who marvel at trivial accomplishments and always pardon themselves. 9. That leader, long absent, was employing such foolish plans in regards to the state that thousands of citizens were forced to suffer troubles and many good men perished. 10. Having said these things, he said that those men, who held unmoving hatred towards that state for many, had been killed in Rome. 11. The beginning of a work often impedes us. 12. The sublime sower of men and animals gave souls to us all; although bodies die, souls will never die. 13. When we returned to the country, we then found at home – wonderful to see! – (very) many friends. 14. Qui fuit Cicero orator Romanus Maximus, consul qui senatui pareret. 15. Ei persuadebo ut melior fiat Romamque redeat, tibi est. 16. Oravimus eas ne crederent isti cui placeret tyrannus. 17. Abeat igitur ille qui dubitet patriam defendere ad aliam terram. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. All threw themselves before Caesar to his feet. 2. Here, in our number, there are those who despise the laws and think this city’s destruction every day. 3. Who is there to whom this republic and the possession of liberty are not dear and sweet? 4. What house is so stable, what state is so firm “that” it cannot be crushed by hatred(s), jealousy, and treachery? 5. Wherefore, what is it that can be pleasing to you now in this city, in which there is no one who does not fear you? 6. Who really can esteem someone whom he fears or by whom he thinks he is feared? 7. As you alone see it, the murders of many citizens have been unpunished and free. 8. But you have that consul who does not hesitate to finish his duty and obey your decrees and can defend you. 9. That man will always be a god, in my mind. 10. There is no pain which length of time does not diminish and soften. 11. To have obtained riches was not a limitation to many men, but a change of evils. 12. There is nothing made by labor or by hand that time does not consume. 13. With strength of body failing, his spirit’s vigor nevertheless endured for that man to the end of his life. 14. Now we must drink (now it is to be drunk by us); now the earth is to be beat with a loose foot. Chapter 39 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Caesar begged them every day not to fear adverse fates. 2. Even if this should happen, those soldiers would perhaps approach to attack the city and many citizens would die. 3. If it will be permitted, we will go home in seven days to see our friends. 4. Our most generous host, with whom we spent the night, poured a libation to the gods before dinner, and then furnished the meal. 5. The consul, a man of great worth, spent his leisure in writing sublime works. 6. However, there are those who, for the sake of avoiding pain(s), as they say, always do the lightest work(s), scorn labor, and complain about duties. 7. In waging the republic, those men do not hesitate to seek pleasing rewards for themselves, to suspend their duties, and also to sell their honor/public office. 8. The very learned reader will soon rise to recite three poems, which will delight all the listeners and soothe their spirits. 9. There is no one to whom injustice is pleasing, as we all recognize. 10. Unless we wish to suffer chains and be crushed on the ground beneath the feet of tyrants, let us always be slaves to freedom and never obstruct it. 11. Few works are done in my case by sitting, many by doing and experiencing. 12. That remarkable woman plucked freely the fruits of love and wed a very grateful man. 13. Eunt Romam ut loquantur de Graecis vincendis. 14. Romae remanendo persuadebat illis ut fortiores fierent. 15. Quis est qui sine dolore teneat operum spem faciendorum? 16. Hortabamur consulem ad civitatem serviendam ac conservandam dignitatem nostram oppugnandis his iniuriis. SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. They strengthened the nascent conspiracy by not believing. 2. Let the evil men cease to bring treachery to the republic and to consul and fire to inflame the city. 3. But many, because of a longing for glory, are desirous of waging war. 4. By enduring an old injury we invite a new one. 5. Let us take care that the penalty not be greater than the fault; moreover, anger must especially be prohibited in punishing. 6. After Syracuse was captured, Marcellus so spared all the buildings – wonderful to say – as though he had come to defend them, not attack. 7. Regulus should be praised in preserving his oath. 8. In my speech, I shall speak of the strong character of Sestius and of his zeal for preserving the common wellbeing. 9. The passing to old age calls us away from carrying on our affairs and makes the body weaker. 10. When for the sake of restoring my weakened voice it was necessary for me to walk, I dictated this letter walking outdoors. 11. A wise man always avoids evil by fearing it. 12. This virtue from foresight is named prudence. (Also a play on words: prudentia is a contraction of providentia). 13. Fame acquires strength by its going. 14. These vicissitudes of fortune, even if they were not pleasant to us in experiencing (them), will be pleasant in reading (of them) however. For recollection of a past pain holds enjoyment for us. Chapter 40 PRACTICE AND REVIEW 1. Was not Romulus, the founder of this city, a man of remarkable virtue (or a remarkable man) and of classic faith? 2. But finally I fear, alas, that this old study cannot be understood by men of little wisdom. 3. It is not fitting that we should pass over these liberal and human studies, for their rewards are certainly the greatest. 4. The dignity of that speech was wholly fitting for the occasion. 5. Though his horses had been so wearied and the wind had been against them, nevertheless they kept running to the goalpost as quickly as possible. 6. A man with a weak body could not do it. 7. Although their three sons are desirous of doing great works, it is not permitted for them to leave home. 8. The strict mistress was complaining bitterly that (very) many slaves had been absent – woe to those poor men. 9. Remarkable to ask, you do not love that woman, do you my friend? 10. Do they not fear that there may be great turmoils both at Rome and in the country? 11. You don’t suppose that so many fair men have utterly erred, do you? 12. Did you recognize, as you were walking to see those buildings, a woman resting beneath a tree on the ground? 13. Vereor mihi ne iam pauca et conando fieri possint. 14. Num dubitas hoc dicere? 15. Opinabantur illum postremum hominem esse spei minimae. 16. Nonne recognoscitis quantum sit periculum? SENTENTIAE ANTIQUAE 1. I find four reasons why old age seems wretched. Let us see how just each of them is. 2. They seem to fear that I do not have enough guard[s]. 3. It is truly necessary that it be one of two things: either death entirely carries away the senses or the soul goes away into another place because of death. If death is like a sleep and the senses are extinguished, good gods, what profit is it to die! 4. Time always brings transition and something new. 5. Does not one display of luxury or greed create much evil? 6. I am amazed that so many thousands of men so boyishly wish again and again to see the running horses. 7. Do you not see that even drops (of water), by falling on rocks, bore through those stones? 8. I fear that we have seized that plan which we cannot easily unfold. 9. Antony, one of his enemies and a man of very little mercy, ordered Cicero to be killed and his head to be place between his two hands on the Rostra. 10. All who have anything not only of wisdom but also of sanity wish this republic to be safe. 11. Hello girl, with neither a very small nose nor a pretty foot nor black little eyes nor long fingers nor a dry mouth. 12. I am a man; nothing human is alien from me. 13. A friend mixes the spirit of a friend with his own as though he makes one out of two. 14. For six days the Lord made the sky and the earth and the sea and all the things which are in them, and he rested on the seventh day. 15. He sent the legate Valerius Procillus, a youth of the highest virtue and humanity. 16. You do not dare deny, do you? Why are you quiet? I shall convict you, if you deny; for I know that here in the senate are certain men who were together with you. O immortal gods! 17. Now I fear that I can give you back nothing except tears. Chapter 1 THE POET HORACE CONTEMPLATES AN INVITATION Maecenas and Vergil are calling me today. What should I think? What should I reply? If I am wrong, they often warn and blame me; if I am not wrong, they praise me. What should I think today? <Hmm... tough decision, huh> Chapter 2 CATULLUS BIDS HIS GIRLFRIEND FAREWELL My girls does not love me. Good-bye, girl! Catullus is firm: the poet does not love the girl, he does not praise the girl's beauty, he does not give the girl roses, and he does not kiss the girl! My anger is great! I am firm, my girl – but without you I am not well. Chapter 3 THE GRASS IS ALWAYS GREENER The farmer often praises both the life and fortune of the sailor; the sailor often praises the great fortune and life of the poet; the poet praises both the life and fields of the farmer. Without philosophy, greedy men always thinking about money: they have much money, but much money does not satisfy a greedy man. Chapter 4 THE RARITY OF FRIENDSHIP Few men have true friends, and few are worthy. True friendship is remarkable, and all remarkable things are rare. Many foolish men always thinking about money, few about friends; but they err: we can be well without much money, but without friendship we are not well and life is nothing. Chapter 5 HIS ONLY GUEST WAS A REAL BOAR! discussion Titus, our Caecilianus does not dine without a boar: Caecilianus has a pretty dinner-guest! THERMOPYLAE: SOLDIER'S HUMOR "Our army is great," says the Persian, "and because of the number of our arrows you will not see the sky!" Then the Spartan replies: "Then we shall fight in the shade!" And Leonidas, king of the Spartans, exclaims: "Fight with courage, Spartans; perhaps today we shall dine among ghosts!" <Play on words with umbra "shade/shadow" and "shade/ghost"; Spartans were renowned for their laconic statements, as a matter of fact the word "laconic" comes from a word for "Spartan"> Chapter 6 "I DO NOT LOVE THEE, DOCTOR FELL" I do not love you, Sabidius, and I cannot say why. I can only say this: I do not love you. ... or more famously: I do not love thee, Doctor Fell, The reason why I cannot tell; But this alone I know full well, I do not love thee, Doctor Fell. THE HISTORIAN LIVY LAMENTS THE DECLINE OF ROMAN MORALS The Roman people used to have great courage and few faults. We used to think about our duties and we always used to praise the glory of war. But we now have much leisure, and many are greedy. We can neither tolerate our vices nor the remedies. Chapter 7 THE RAPE OF LUCRETIA Tarquinius Superbus was a king of the Romans, and Sextus Tarquinius was the tyrant's evil son. Sextus raped Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, and the good woman because of great love of virtue killed herself. Ancient Romans used to always praise virtue and courage and they blamed the Tarquins. CATULLUS DEDICATES HIS POETRY BOOK I will give my fine new book to Cornelius, a man of great wisdom. Cornelius, my friend, you always praised my books, and you are a learned master of literature! So have my new labor: the book's fame (and your fame) will be forever. Chapter 8 CICERO ON THE ETHICS OF WAGING WAR The state should not wage war without good cause or because of anger. If we will be able to defend the fortunes and farms and lives of our people without war, then we will owe it to preserve peace; if, however, we will not be able to guard to fatherland and our liberty without war, war will be necessary. Nevertheless we should show great duty in war, and great mercy after victory. Chapter 9 WHEN I HAVE... ENOUGH! Africanus has ‘millions’, nevertheless he hunts legacies. Fortune give too much to many men, enough to none. <for miliens see Numeral Adverbs> If you wish to study philosophy and the mind, this study cannot be strong without frugality. This frugality is a voluntary poverty. So remove those excuses of yours: “I do not yet have enough money. If ever I shall have that ‘enough’, then I shall give all myself to philosophy.” Begin to study philosophy now, not money. Chapter 10 THE INCOMPARABLE VALUE OF FRIENDSHIP I can compare nothing with friendship; the gods give nothing better to men. Some prefer money; others, sound bodies; others, fame and glory; others, pleasures – but these men err too much, since those things are unsure and come out of luck, not out of wisdom. Friendship truly comes from wisdom and love and good character and virtue; without virtue friendship cannot be. If you have no friends, you have a tyrant's life; if you will find a true friend, your life will be happy. Chapter 11 CICERO DENOUNCES CATILINE IN THE SENATE What are you doing, Catiline? What are you thinking? We feel great vices and your treachery. O the times! O the customs! The senate understands these, the consul sees. This man lives nevertheless. He lives? Even in the senate he comes; even now he dares to pass judgments; with his eyes he designates us to death! And we, good men, we do nothing! The consul and senate should lead you to death, Catiline! We have a decision and we must act; if we do not act now, we, we – I openly say – we are wrong! Flee now, Catiline, and take with you your friends. You can not remain with us; not you, not them, not your judgments will I tolerate! Chapter 12 PLINY WRITES TO MARCELLINUS ABOUT THE DEATH OF FUNDANUS' DAUGHTER Hello, Marcelllinus! I write these to you concerning Fundanus, our friend; he has lost his dear and pretty daughter. That girl had not lived for 13 years, but nature had given her much wisdom. She always loved her mother and father, her brother and sister, us and other friends, and her teacher; and we used to love and praise her. The doctors were not able to help her. But since that girl had great courage, she tolerated an illness too evil with patience. Now, my friend, send our Fundanus a letter about his daughter's bitter fortune. Good-bye. DIAULUS STILL BURIES HIS CLIENTS Recently he was a doctor, now Diaulus is an undertaker. What he does as undertaker, he had done even as doctor. Chapter 13 ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE POWER OF LITERATURE discussion The great Alexander always kept with him many scribes of his deeds. In fact, he once stood before the tomb of Achilles and said these words: "You were fortunate, O young man, because you found Homer the eulogist of your virtue." And truly! For, without the Iliad, the same tomb and his body and name could be buried. Nothing can preserve the human body; but great literature can often preserve a great man's name. THE AUTHORITY OF A TEACHER'S OPINION Good teachers should not always say their own opinions to their students. The students of Pythagoras in debate often used to say: "He himself has spoken!" Pythagoras, their teacher of philosophy, was the "himself": his opinions were strong even without reason. But in philosophy, reason alone, not opinion, should be strong. Chapter 14 STORE TEETH Thais has black teeth, Laecania has snowy white ones. What is the reason? This woman has bought (teeth), that one has her own. CICERO IMAGINES THE STATE OF ROME ITSELF URGING HIM TO PUNISH THE CATILINARIAN CONSPIRATORS M.[arcus] Tullius Cicero, what are you doing? Those men should now pay the penalty for their many evil deeds; you should indeed lead them to death, because they have dragged Rome into many dangers. Romans have often punished even citizens by death in this state. But you should not consider these evil men citizens, for never in this city have betrayers of the fatherland regarded the rights of the citizens; these men send away their own rights. The Roman people will give you great thanks, M. Tullius, if you will punish those men with virtue. Chapter 15 CYRUS' DYING WORDS ON IMMORTALITY O my three sons, you should not be miserable. Indeed I now come to death, but a part of me, my soul, will always remain. While I was with you, you did not see the soul, but from my deeds you understood that it was in this body. Therefore believe that the soul is the same after death, even if you will not see it, and always keep me in your memory. FABIAN TACTICS Even in old age, Quintus Fabius Maximus was a man of true virtue and he waged wars with the courage of a young man. Our friend Ennius, the learned poet, once wrote these words about him: "One man protected the fortunate state for us by means of delaying. He did not place rumors and report before the safety of Rome. His glory, therefore, is now strong and will always be strong." Chapter 16 JUVENAL EXPLAINS HIS IMPULSE TO SATIRE Will I always be a listener? There is a crowd on poets in this city – therefore I shall be a poet! There are millions of vices in the city – I shall write about those vices! It is difficult not to write a satire. If nature cannot help me, indignation creates a verse. In my book will be all men's deeds – fear, anger, pleasure, fault, desire, treachery. Now there is a full abundance of vices in this wretched city of Rome! ON A TEMPERAMENTAL FRIEND Difficult easy, pleasant bitter – you are the same: neither with you can I live, nor without you. <sound familiar?> Chapter 17 ON THE PLEASURES OF LOVE IN OLD AGE Is there love in old age? Indeed the pleasure is less, but less also is the desire. But nothing is a concern to us, if we are not longing, and he who does not desire does not lack. Youths desire too much; old men often have enough love and much wisdom. Therefore, I think that this time of life is pleasant. IT'S ALL IN THE DELIVERY What you recite, O Fidentinus, is my little book; but when you recite it badly, it begins to be yours! <plagiarists get what they deserve – public humiliation!> Chapter 18 ON DEATH AND METAMORPHOSIS O human race, that fears death too much! Why do you fear the dangers of death? All things are being changed, all things are flowing, nothing comes to a true death. The spirit wanders and is mixed into other bodies; neither does it stay, nor does it keep the same forms, but it is changed into new forms. Life is a river; our times hurry away and there are always new ones. Our bodies always are being changed; that which we have been or are, we will not be tomorrow. Chapter 19 THE AGED PLAYWRIGHT SOPHOCLES HOLDS HIS OWN How many things old men hold in their minds! If serious study and labor and probity remain in old age, often memory, knowledge, and wisdom also remain. Sophocles, the Greek writer, wrote tragedies to extreme old age; but because of this pursuit he seemed to neglect his family and was called into trial by his sons. Then the author recited to the judges that tragedy which he had with him and which he had written shortly before, "Oedipus at Colonus". When this tragedy was recited, the old man was freed from the judge's opinions. CATULLUS BIDS A BITTER FAREWELL TO LESBIA Good-bye, girl – now Catullus is firm. ... Wicked woman, woe to you! What life remains for you? Who will now visit you? To whom will you seem pretty? Whom will you now love? Whose will you be said to be? Whom will you kiss? Whose* lips will you bite? But you, Catullus, be firm, resolute. <*literally, "to/for whom will you bit lips"> MESSAGE FROM A BOOKCASE Unless you give me (carefully) chosen books, I will let in bookworms and fierce cockroaches! Chapter 20 CICERO URGES CATILINE'S DEPARTURE FROM ROME We have the senate's decree against you, Catiline, vehement and grave; we have harsh verdict, our state has both strength and judgment. What is it, Catiline? Why do you stay? O immortal gods! Leave now from this city with your evil band of wicked men; you will free me from great dread, if you will lead out all those conspirators with you. Unless you leave now, we will quickly throw you out. Nothing in our state can please you. Go, go! Then run to Manlius, that evil friend; he has long missed you. Begin now, wage war in the state! In a short time we shall defeat you and all your (comrades), enemies of the fatherland, and all of you will always pay the heavy penalties. Chapter 21 VIRGIL'S MESSIANIC ECLOGUE Now comes a great new age; sent down from the sky is a boy, who will have the life of the gods and will see the gods and will himself be seen by them. This boy will guide the world to which the virtues of his father gave peace. A few evils, however, will remain, which will command men to work and wage a rough war. There will even be the same wars over again and great Achilles will be sent again to Troy. Then, boy, when a long period of time will have made you a man, there will be no labors, no wars; the sailors will leave their ships, the farmers also will now leave their fields, the earth itself will provide all things for all men. Run, O ages; begin, small boy, to know your mother (i.e. be born), and there will be enough breath to tell me your deeds. Chapter 22 A VISIT FROM THE YOUNG INTERNS I used to be sick: but you came to me at once, Symmachus, accompanied by a hundred students. A hundred hands chilled by the north wind touched me: I did not have a fever, Symmachus, now I have one! <the number hundred is often used as an exaggeration as in English; north wind as a symbol of frigidity> ON AMBITION AND LITERATURE, BOTH LATIN AND GREEK Poets can give great and everlasting fame through their literature; therefore, many men wish literature about their own affairs to be written. We are all drawn by the pursuit of praise and many are led by glory, which either in Greek or Latin literature can be found. However, (he) who sees much benefit of glory in Latin verses but not in Greek, is too mistaken, because Greek literature is read in almost all nations, but Latin is contained in our borders. Chapter 23 LAOCOON SPEAKS OUT AGAINST THE TROJAN HORSE Oppressed by a long war and by averse gods, the Greek leaders, now after ten years, are making a great wooden horse by the art of Minerva. They fill up the belly with many soldiers, they leave the horse on the shore, and sail to the other side of a nearby island. The Trojans see no troops or ships; all Troy rejoices; the gates are opened. But the Trojans are unsure of the horse. Some want it to be led into the city; others call it a Greek ambush. First there before everyone, running from the citadel, Laocoon, a Trojan priest, said these words: "O wretched citizens, you are not sane! What are you thinking? Do you not understand the Greeks and their plot? Either you will find fierce soldiers in that horse, or the horse is a machine of war, created against us, about to come into the city, about to see our houses and people. Or something lies hidden. Do not trust the horse, Trojans: whatever it is, I fear Greeks, especially (those) carrying gifts. He spoke, and threw a powerful spear with great strength of his left hand into the horse's belly; it stood, shaking. Chapter 24 DE CUPIDITATE The foolish man says, "O citizens, citizens, money before all things is to be sought; virtue and probity after money." However, the longing for money should be shunned. Also to be fled is the longing for glory; for it will snatch away freedom. Neither should power always be sought nor always be accepted. Hercules, received into the sky because of virtue, greeted the gods; but with Plutus, who is the son of Fortune, coming, Hercules averted his eyes. Then, a reason having been asked (of him), he said "That man should be scorned because he corrupts all things for the sake of profit." THE SATIRIST'S MODUS OPERANDI Laughing, I shall run through my satires, and why not? What forbids me to speak the truth laughing, as teachers often give cookies to the boys to be taught. I ask serious things by jocund play and, by made up names, I tell of many faults and vices. But why are you laughing? With a name changed, a story is told about you! Chapter 25 THE DEATH OF LAOCOON... AND TROY discussion Here another great fear (O wretched tale!) terrifies our blind souls. Laocoon, made priest of Neptune by fortune, was sacrificing a fierce bull to the altar on the shore. Then, mighty twin serpents, pressing on the sea, run from the island to the shores. And now they were holding the fields and, eyes blazing with fire, were licking their mouths with hissing tongues. We all flee; they [the serpents] make for Laocoon and his sons by a determined way. First, they seize the two boys' small bodies and mangle and kill and devour them. Then they snatch the brave father, running to his poor sons, and hold him in their great coils and overpower him. Neither can he defend himself from wounds nor flee, and he himself, as the wounded bull to the altar, raised horrendous screams to the sky. At the same time, the serpents hurry away, and seek refuge in the citadel of cruel Minerva. Because Laocoon had thrown a spear into Minerva's horse, we thought that he had erred and paid the penalty; we did not know the bitter truth. We open the gates and let that horse into the city; and even the boys and girls – O fatherland, O great gods, O Troy! – rejoice to touch it. And we [who are] wretched also rejoice, to whom that day was the last and to whom there will never be any comfort. Chapter 26 THE NATIONS OF GAUL Gaul is wholly divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, another the Aquitani [inhabit], [those] who inhabit the third are called by the language of their own the Celts, by ours the Gauls. All these differ by language, customs, laws among themselves. The river Garumna (Garonne) divides the Gauls from the Aquitani, the Matrona (Marne) and Sequana (Seine) divide them from the Belgae. Of all these the strongest are the Belgae. <omnis may sometimes mean "entirely/wholly/in every part", but it is not the same thing as totus> THE GOOD LIFE These are, most agreeable friend, what make life happier: wealth not made by labor but left by a father (i.e. inherited), a prosperous farm, little of the forum and enough leisure, a calm mind, strength and a sound body, wisdom, true friends, a table without craft, a night not drunken but released from cares, not a sad but nevertheless a chaste bed, easy sleep. Desire so much as what you have, long for nothing; do not fear the final day or hope. Chapter 27 ALLEY CAT discussion Caelius, our Lesbia, that Lesbia, that Lesbia, which one girl Catullus has loved more than himself and all his own*, now in the crossroads and alleyways strips off the bark** of noble Remus' grandsons. <*reflexive possessives are used to show closeness, so "his own" are the people dearest to him; **check the discussion for more on this naughty line> THANKS A LOT, TULLY! Most learned of Romulus' nephews, how many there are and how many have been, Marcus Tullius, and how many after there will be in other years, most thanks to you gives Catullus, the worst poet of all, just as much as [he is] the worst poet of all so much [are you] the best patron of all. AN UNCLE'S LOVE FOR HIS NEPHEW AND ADOPTED SON The young man is dearer to me than my very self! And he is not my son but from my brother. My brother's pursuits are now long dissimilar to mine. I have led an urban life and sought leisure and, that which some consider rather fortunate, I have never had a wife. But he has done these things: he has led a life not in the forum but in the fields, he has received little money, he has married a chaste wife, he has had two sons. From him I have adopted this older one for myself, I have reared him from a small boy, I have loved him for my own. In that youth is my enjoyment; it alone is dear to me. Chapter 28 PLEASE REMOVE MY NAME FROM YOUR MAILING LIST! Why do I not send my books to you, Pontilianus? Lest you, Pontilianus, send me yours. TO HAVE FRIENDS ONE MUST BE FRIENDLY That I should supply Pylades, let someone supply me Orestes. This is not done by words, Marcus; to be loved, love. <Note that Martial's cognomen is Marcus; very nice poem> THE DAYS OF THE WEEK The days are named after (from) the gods whose names the Romans dedicated to certain stars. Indeed, the first day they named after the Sun, which is foremost of all the stars as the same day is before all other days. They named the second day after the Moon, which receives light from the Sun. The third after the star of Mars, which is called the evening star. The fourth after the star of Mercury. The fifth after the star of Jupiter. The sixth after the star of Venus, which they called Lucifer (light-bearer), which among all the stars holds the most light. The seventh after the star of Saturn, which is said to fill its course in thirty years. Among the Hebrew however, the first day is called a day of Sabbath, which in our language is the Lord's day, which the pagans dedicated to the Sun. But the Sabbath is seven days from the Lord's, which the pagans dedicated to Saturn. Chapter 29 HOW MANY KISSES ARE ENOUGH? Lesbia, you ask how many of your kisses are enough for me? So many kisses as the great number of Libyan sands or as the many stars which, when the night is silent, see the secret loves of men – so many kisses (no one can know the number) are enough for insane Catullus. THE NERVOUSNESS OF EVEN A GREAT ORATOR Then I rose to respond. With what anxiety of spirit I arose – immortal gods – and with what fear! Certainly I always begin to speak with great dread. Whenever I speak, I seem to myself to come into judgment not only of character but also of virtue and duty. Then I am truly so perturbed that I am afraid of everything. Finally I collect myself and so have I fought, thus by all reason I have contended that no one may think that I have neglected that case. YOU'RE ALL JUST WONDERFUL! Lest he praise the worthy, Callistratus praises all: to whom no one is bad, who can be good? Chapter 30 EVIDENCE AND CONFESSION Let it finally be written in the forehead of each one what he feels about the republic; for you see that by my efforts and plans that the republic is rescued from the fire and the sword. Now I shall explain these things shortly so that you may know by what reason they have been understood. I have always given attention to the way by which we can be safe in such great treachery. I consumed all my days to see what the conspirators were about to do. At last, I was able to intercept a letter which had been sent to Catiline from Lentulus and the other conspirators. Then, with the conspirators arrested and the senate called together, I struggled in the senate, I showed the letter to Lentulus, I asked whether he recognized the seal. He said that he recognized it; but at first he hesitated and said that he would not respond about these matters. Soon however, he showed how great the force of conscience was; for suddenly he was softened and told everything. Then the rest of the conspirators were glancing at each other so sneakily that they seemed not by others to be accused, but to accuse their very selves. A COVERED DISH DINNER! Olus, you serve good dinner-courses, but you serve them covered. It is a joke: so can I have good [dinner-courses]. <Olus thinks his dinners are fancy> A LEGACY-HUNTER'S WISH You give me nothing while alive; you say [you] will give after death: if you are not a fool, Marus, you know what I desire! NOTE ON A COPY OF CATULLUS' CARMINA Great Verona owes as much to its Catullus as small Mantua owes to its Vergil. Chapter 31 GIVE ME A THOUSAND KISSES! discussion Let us live, my Lesbia, and let us love, and let us value the gossip of rather harsh old men at one as! Suns can set and return; for us, when the brief light sets once, it is one eternal night to be slept. Give me a thousand kisses, then a hundred; then a thousand others, then a second hundred; then all the way to another thousand, then a hundred. Then, when we have made many thousands – we shall confuse those, so that we may not know, or so that whatever bad person may not be able to cast an evil eye, when he knows there are so many kisses. RINGO discussion Charinus wears rings with all his fingers nor does he take them off by night nor when he bathes. You ask what the reason is? He does not have a jewelry box! FACETIAE (WITTICISMS) When Cicero dined at the house of Damasippus and that man, after the mediocre wine was put on the table, said, "Drink this Falernian wine; this is wine of forty years (i.e. forty years aged)," Cicero replied, "It carries its age well!" Augustus, when a certain silly man brought him a book in confusion, and first offered it forth and then retracted his hand, said, "You think you are giving an as to an elephant?" Chapter 32 THE CHARACTER OF CIMON Cimon quickly arrived at the highest honors. Indeed he had sufficient eloquence, the utmost liberality, great knowledge of laws and of the art of war (res militaris), because he had been with his father in the army from boyhood. And so this man very easily kept the people of the city in his power and was powerful among the greatest army in respect to authority. When he had died, the Athenians long grieved about him; not only in war, however, but also in peace they gravely longed for him. Truly he was a man of such liberality that, when he had many gardens, he never placed guards in them; for he wished his gardens to lie open most freely so that the people would not be restrained from these fruits. Often, however, when he saw someone less well dressed, he gave his own cloak to him. He enriched many; he helped many living poor men, and buried the dead at his own expense. Thus it is least surprising if, because of Cimon's character, his life was free from care and his death was as harsh to all as the death of someone from the family. A VACATION... FROM YOU! Linus, you ask what my farm in Nomentum gives back to me? It gives me back this: I don't see you, Linus! PLEASE... DON'T! You recite nothing and you wish to seem a poet, Mamercus. Be what you wish, as long as you recite nothing! Chapter 33 B.Y.O.B., etc., etc. You will dine well, my Fabullus, at my house in a few (if the gods favor you) days – if you will have brought with you a good and great dinner, not without a fair girl and wine and salt and all the laughter; if these, I say, you will have brought, our charming man, you will dine well; for your Catullus' wallet is full of spider-webs. But on the other hand you will receive pure affections, or what is sweeter or finer: for I will give a perfume, which to my girl the Venuses and Cupids gave; which when you smell, you will ask the gods, to make you, Fabullus, an entire nose (i.e. nothing but a nose). <you'll have a good time as long as you supply the good times> THE RICH GET RICHER You will always be poor, if you are poor, Aemilianus: riches are given to no one now except the rich. ARISTOTLE, TUTOR OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT Can it be that Philip, king of the Macedonians, had wished the first principles of literature to be handed down to Alexander, his son, by Aristotle, the greatest philosopher of his time, or would this man have undertaken that very great duty, if he had not believed most wisely that the beginnings of study affect the whole? YOUR LOSS, MY GAIN! When Quintus Fabius Maximus by a great plan most bravely recaptured Tarentum and Salinator (who had been in the citadel, while the city was lost) had said, "By my doing, Quintus Fabius, you have retaken Tarentum;" Fabius, with me listening, said laughing, "Surely, for if you had not lost the city, I would never have retaken it." Chapter 34 CLAUDIUS' EXCREMENTAL EXPIRATION discussion And he indeed bubbled out his soul, and from that time he ceased to seem to live. But he expired while he listens to the comics, so you know that I do not fear them without a reason. His final speech among men was heard, when he had sent out quite a loud sound from 'that part' from which he spoke without difficulty: "Woe to me, I think, I have defecated." Whether he did it, I do not know – he surely defecated on everything. <a mockery of the quotation "Vae, puto, deus fio" reported to have been said by Claudius at his death; check the discussion for more on this dirty piece of humor> AND VICE IS NOT NICE! Zoilus, he who says you are full of vice lies: you are not a man full of vice, Zoilus, but vice (itself)! PRETTY IS AS PRETTY DOES You are pretty, we know, and a girl, it is true, and rich – truly who can deny? But, Fabulla, when you praise yourself too much, you are neither rich nor pretty nor a girl. ON LESBIA'S HUSBAND That man seems to me to be equal to a god, that man, if it is right, [seems] to outdo the gods, who, sitting opposite, again and again looks at you and hears [you] laughing sweetly, which seizes away all senses for poor me: for as soon as you, Lesbia, I have looked at, nothing is left for me, [Lesbia, of my voice,] my tongue but goes numb, a slender flame flows beneath my joints, by their very own noise my ears ring, my eyes are covered by the double blindness. Leisure, Catullus, is troublesome to you; you exult in leisure and indulge too much; leisure both kings before and prosperous cities has destroyed. Chapter 35 OVID ASKS THE GODS TO INSPIRE HIS WORK The soul brings me to tell the changed forms into new bodies: gods, breathe upon my [work's] beginnings – for you have changed even those – and from the first origin of the world to my times, lead down my eternal poem. SORRY, NOBODY'S HOME! Nasica came to the poet Ennius. When he had asked for Ennius at the door and a servant-girl had replied that he was not in the house, he felt that she had spoken at the command of her master and that Ennius was actually in the house. After a few days, when Ennius had come to Nasica and asked for him at the door, Nasica himself cried out that he was not in the house. Then Ennius said "What? Do I not recognize your voice?" Nasica replied with pure wit: "Curses, you are a shameless man! When I asked for you, I believed your servant that you were not in the house; don't you now believe me myself? "I DO." "I DON'T!" You wish to wed Priscus. I am not surprised, Paula; you have been wise. Priscus does not want to marry you: and he is wise (as well)! MARONILLA HAS A COUGH Gemellus seeks the marriage of Maronilla and desires and insists and begs and gives gifts. Is she so beautiful? On the contrary, nothing is fouler. What therefore is sought in her and is pleasing? She coughs! SUMMER VACATION Master of the school, spare the simple crowd: ... if boys are well in summer, they learn enough. Chapter 36 THE QUALITY OF MARTIAL'S BOOK There are good, there are some mediocre, there are rather many bad things which you read here; otherwise, Avitus, a book is not created. I DON'T COOK FOR COOKS! discussion The reader and the listener approves of our books, Aulus, but a certain poet says they are not complete. I do not care too much, for I would wish the courses of our meal to have pleased the guests more than the cooks! I LOVE HER... I LOVE HER NOT I love and I hate [her]! Why I do this perhaps you ask. I do not know, but I feel that it happens and I am tormented. <sc. sentio id fieri> OH, I'D LOVE TO READ YOU MY POEMS... NOT! You ask that I recite our epigrams. I do not want to – you do not listen, Celer, but you wish to recite! WHO IS TRULY FREE? So who is truly free? Only a wise man, who controls himself, whom neither adverse fortune nor poverty nor death nor chains frighten, who can bravely respond to desires and disregard his honor(s), whose virtue grows every day, who is whole in his very self. TESTIMONY AGAINST THE CONSPIRATORS I brought together the senate. I introduced Vulturcius without the Gauls. I have given him the public trust. I urged him to announce the things which he knew without fear. Then he, when he had restored himself from great fear, said that he had order from Lentulus to Catiline to use the aid of the slaves and go to the city as soon as possible with an army. Moreover, the Gauls introduced said for themselves that a letter had been given to their own nation from Lentulus and that this man had ordered that they send cavalry into Italy as soon as possible. Finally, with all these matters exposed, the senate decreed that the conspirators, who had built this plot, be handed into custody. Chapter 37 THANKS... BUT NO THANKS! Nothing is more transparent than you, Caecilianus. I have noticed: if ever I read a few verses from our (books), you at once recite the works of either Marsus or Catullus. Give me this, as it were that you read worse (poetry), so that, in comparison to mine, they are more pleasing? I believe that: nevertheless, Caecilianus, I prefer that you recite yours! <remember dear Caecilianus from chapter 5? > TRIMALCHIO'S EPITAPH "Also look carefully if this inscription seems fitting enough to you: 'Here rests C. (Gaius) Pompeius Trimalchio Maecenatianus. In his absence (from Rome) he is declared sevirate. Though he could be in all the decuriae of Rome, nevertheless he did not wish to be. Devoted, brave, loyal, he grew from humble beginnings; he left behind thirty million sesterces, and did not ever listen to a philosopher. Goodbye. And you.'" As Trimalchio spoke these [words], he began to weep profusely. Even Fortunata was weeping; even Habinnas was weeping; then the whole family, as if asked into a funeral, filled the triclinium (an eating room) with lamentation. MARCUS QUINTO FRATRI S. Licinius, slave of our (dear) Aesopus, has fled from Rome to Athens. He was in Athens at the House of Patro as a free man. Then he went away into Asia. Afterwards, Plato, a certain man who is much accustomed to being in Athens and who had then been in Athens when Licinius had come to Athens, with Aesopus' letter about Licinius received, apprehended this man at Ephesus and handed him into custody. I ask of you, brother, that (as you are) leaving from Ephesus, you bring back the slave with you to Rome. Aesop is truly so angry because of his slave's crime that nothing can be more pleasing to him than the recovery of the fugitive. Farewell. Chapter 38 NOTE ON A BOOK BY LUCAN There are some who say that I am not a poet; but the book-dealer who sells me thinks I am. TWO EXAMPLES OF ROMAN WIT Oh, Give Me a Figgy Sprig! When a certain man, complaining, had said that his wife had hanged herself from a fig tree, that man's friend said "Please, give me some sprigs from that tree which I may plant!" The Most Pitiful Speech I've Ever Heard! When a certain orator was thinking that he had perhaps evoked pity by his oration, he asked Catulus whether he seemed to have evoked pity. "And certainly great (pity), in my opinion," he said, "I truly think that no one is so unfeeling that to him (to whom) your oration did not seem worthy of pity. TWO LETTERS TO CICERO Proconsul Cn. (Gnaeus) the Great Salutes General Cicero If you are well, that is good (well). I have read your letter with pleasure; for I recognized your pristine virtue even in the general greeting. The consuls have come to that army which I have in Apulia. I greatly urge you to seize the opportunity and betake yourself to us, so that with your wisdom of the community you might bring help and assistance to the miserable republic. I advise that you depart from Rome, make your way on the Via Appia (Appian Way), and come to Brundisium as swiftly as possible. The General Caesar Salutes the General Cicero Though I approach Brundisium (rather) quickly and am on the journey, with the army by now sent forth, I nevertheless must write to you and give you the proper thanks, even if I have done this often and seem to be about to do it more often; so worthy are you. Especially, since I believe that that I am about to come to the city quickly, I ask that I may see you there that I may be able to benefit from your judgment, dignity, and help. You will pardon my hastiness and the shortness of the letter; you will know the rest from Furnius. ASK ME IF I CARE I am not too eager, Caesar, to wish to please you, nor to know whether you are a white or black man! Chapter 39 PROMISES, PROMISES! discussion My woman says she wants to wed no one more than me, not if Jupiter himself should ask. [So] she says; but what a woman says to a desirous lover, it is fitting to scribble in the wind and rushing water. PAETE, NON DOLET discussion When loyal Arria handed the sword to her own Paetus, which she herself had drawn out of her viscera, "Believe me*, the wound I have made does not hurt," she said, "but what you will do, Paetus, this is painful to me." <*literally "if any faith"> HANNIBAL AND THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SECOND PUNIC WAR Hannibal, the son of Hamilcar, was born at Carthage. In his youth, he preserved his father's original hatred against the Romans so strongly that he never put it aside. He departed with his father from Carthage and set out into Hispania on a long journey; and after many years, after Hamilcar was killed, the army handed down the command to him. Thus Hannibal, twenty-five years old (born for twentyfive years), was made commander. He did not rest in three years, but conquered all the tribes of Hispania and prepared three very large armies. Out of these he sent one into Africa, the other he left with his brother in Hispania, he led the third with him into Italy. He went to the Alps, which no one had ever crossed with an army before him. He killed the people trying to keep him from crossing; he opened up the regions; and entered Italy with many elephants and soldiers. On this journey he was so afflicted by a disease of the eyes that he was never able to use his right eye well afterwards. However, he conquered many generals and Roman armies, and because of that commander, thousands of Roman soldiers perished. Chapter 40 JUPITER PROPHESIES TO VENUS THE FUTURE GLORY OF ROME To that woman (Venus), the father of men and of gods, laughing by his expression, by which the sky and seasons brighten, poured kisses to his daughter, then spoke such things: "Spare your fear, Cytherea (Venus); the fates of your men remain unmoved for you. You will see the city and Lavinium's promised walls and you will bring to the stars of the sky noble Aeneas; and thought will not change me. ... He will wage a mighty war in Italy and will crush the fierce people and will place customs and city-walls for men. ... Romulus will take the tribe and found the walls of Mars and he will name the Romans from his own name. I neither put to these men the goals of their affairs nor the times: I have given power without end. Indeed, harsh Juno, who wearies the sea now and the lands and the sky with dread, will bring back her plans into something better, and with me she will support the Romans, the masters of their affairs and the togate tribe." THE VALUE OF LITERATURE If enjoyment alone should be sought from these studies, nonetheless, as I suppose, you would consider this release of mind [to be] very human and liberal. For the rest are neither of the time(s) nor the ages of all, nor of the places; but these studies nourish youth, they amuse old age, they decorate favorable things, they show refuge and solace to the adverse, they delight at home, they do not get in the way outdoors, they spend the night with us, they wander about, they are in the country. A MONUMENT MORE LASTING THAN BRONZE I have completed a monument more lasting than bronze. ... I shall not die entirely, and much a part of me will avoid Libitina (i.e. death). <omnis may sometimes mean "entirely/wholly/in every part", but it is not the same thing as totus> ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Ask a homework question - tutors are online