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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 6-8 Attitudes = an individual's evaluation of a target which usually varies in strength along a positive and negative dimension • Target is any stimulus o e.g. feeling toward cockroach --> negative o Chocolate cake --> positive o Cotton --> middle • Broad concept • Emotional reaction --> emotional component. Affective. Emotions • Cognitive --> informational knowledge base about the target • Past behavior --> past actions toward the target • Attitudes can influence what we notice, remember, perception of the world around us • Can have ambivalent attitudes --> both negative and positive • Evaluate stimuli to make quick evaluation object appraisal function; helps facilitate approach or → avoidance; whether you like or avoid or are careful around it • Attitudes help express identity and values; value expressive function o E.g. labeled/name brand clothing Explicit attitude consciously report; aware of it; often get them → from questionnaires • Limitation may not be honest/accurate → Implicit attitude automatic evaluative responses to a target of which you are not consciously aware; → unconscious; immediate, spontaneous response along good/bad dimensions No questions on exam regarding measuring of attitudes except implicit association test Affective sources = emotional Evaluative conditioning = type of classical conditioning; attitudes evoke/cause positive or negative affect to target due to association to affective inducing events • E.g. smell cologne, perfume, scent of grandma’s house → Food aversions some are allergy-based. → Some occur because of faulty conditioning, like getting sick after eating an avocado and not eating avocados ever again • Chemotherapy get sick. → Associated getting sick with meal they had recently. Could develop aversion to food in general. Encouraged not to eat favorite food right before having chemotherapy to prevent conditioning Operant conditioning = rewards and punishment; develop attitude because you were rewarded for it Mere exposure effect = tendency for repeated contact with an object to increase your liking for an object • E.g. liking your own initials • Mirror image versus original photo of yourself. People like the mirrored image of themselves, but their friends like the original; that’s the image that they see Cognitive sources = your information about objects play a role in your attitudes • E.g. read about smoking Behavioral sources •...
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2010 for the course PSYCH 13 taught by Professor Mazeika during the Spring '10 term at Pierce College.
- Spring '10
- Social Psychology