ch14 - Chapter 14 Aromatic Compounds Nomenclature of...

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Chapter 14 Aromatic Compounds
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Chapter 14 2 Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives Benzene is the parent name for some monosubstituted benzenes; the substituent name is added as a prefix For other monosubstituted benzenes, the presence of the substituent results in a new parent name
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Chapter 14 3 When two substituents are present their position may be indicated by the prefixes ortho , meta, and para ( o , m and p ) or by the corresponding numerical positions Dimethyl substituted benzenes are called xylenes
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Chapter 14 4 Numbers must be used as locants when more than two substituents are present The lowest possible set of numbers should be given to the substituents The substituents should be listed in alphabetical order If one of the substituents defines a parent other than benzene, this substituent defines the parent name and should be designated position 1
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Chapter 14 5 The C 6 H 5 - group is called phenyl when it is a substituent Phenyl is abbreviated Ph or Φ A hydrocarbon with a saturated chain and a benzene ring is named by choosing the larger structural unit as the parent If the chain is unsaturated then it must be the parent and the benzene is then a phenyl substituent The phenylmethyl group is called a benyl (abbreviated Bz)
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Chapter 14 6 Reactions of Benzene Even though benzene is highly unsaturated it does not undergo any of the regular reactions of alkenes such as addition or oxidation Benzene can be induced to react with bromine if a Lewis acid catalyst is present however the reaction is a substitution and not an addition Benzene produces only one monobrominated compound, which indicates that all 6 carbon-hydrogen bonds are equivalent in benzene
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Chapter 14 7 The Kekule Structure for Benzene Kekule was the first to formulate a reasonable representation of benzene The Kekule structure suggests alternating double and single carbon-carbon bonds Based on the Kekule structure one would expect there to be two different 1,2- dibromobenzenes but there is only one Kekule suggested an equilibrium between these compounds to explain this observation but it is now known no such equilibrium exists
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Chapter 14 8 The Stability of Benzene Benzene is much more stable than would be expected based on calculations for “cyclohexatriene” A reasonable prediction for the heat of hydrogenation of hypothetical cyclohexatriene is -360 kJ mol -1 (3 times that of cyclohexene, -120 kJ mol -1 ) The experimentally determined heat of hydrogenation for benzene is -280 mol -1 , 152 kJ mol -1 more stable than hypothetical cyclohexatriene This difference is called the resonance energy
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Chapter 14 9 Modern Theories of the Structure of Benzene The Resonance Explanation of the Structure of Benzene Structures I and ΙΙ are equal resonance contributors to the real structure of benzene Benzene is particularly stable because it has two equivalent and important
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This note was uploaded on 06/02/2010 for the course MGMT 121 taught by Professor Morozova during the Spring '10 term at NJIT.

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ch14 - Chapter 14 Aromatic Compounds Nomenclature of...

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