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Caliphate-6 - Prophet’s grandson Ḥusayn b ʿAl his...

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Historical Background Important Events The Prophet’s life : 570-632. Rightly Guided Caliphs (the Age of the Caliphate): 11-40/632-61. Medina the capital … Arab-Muslim conquests and organization of the new state: The Caliphs: Abū Bakr -11/632 ʿUmar – 13/634 ʿUthmān -23/644 –beginning of civil wars ʿAlī -35-40/656-61 – civil wars continue – moved to Kūfa (unable to return to Medina) The Umayyad Dynasty (the Arab Kingdom): 41-132/661-750. Damascus the capital – continuation of the conquests and organization of the empire – Arabization and Islamization i) The Sufyānids: Muʿāwiya – 41/661 … Ḥasan b. ʿAlī abdicates caliphate Yazīd – 60/680 … the tragedy of Karbalāʾ/massacre of the
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Unformatted text preview: Prophet’s grandson Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī, his family and his companions. Muʿāwiya II -64/683… crisis ii) The Marwānids: Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik Walīd The ʿAbbāsid Dynasty/Caliphs: 132-656/750-1258 Baghdad was founded as the new capital – strong centralized government –great economic prosperity and the blooming of a remarkable civilization reign of Hārūn al-Rashīd 170-93/786-809 … the Arabian Nights … reign of Maʾmūn 198-218/813-33 … Bayt al-ḥikma (the House of Wisdom) … translation of philosophical and scientific works Arab philosophers and Scientists. Mongol invasion and the destruction of Baghdad in 1258....
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