Smallpox - 2Smallpox: Dates back to the ancient Egyptian...

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2Smallpox: Dates back to the ancient Egyptian times Only infectious disease to be eradicated (1980) -WHO determined that small pox was extinct in the wild -Still officially at two lab locations in the US Caused by variola virus [Variola from Latin for spotted] Spread through the air, concentration of virus in the throat that is exhaled with air inhalation of virus extremely easily contracted largely a childhood disease in big cities of Europe Most survived, only 15% of people did not Scratching of the pustules will result in a deep scar All recognized smallpox to be contagious Not able to stay away from those suffering because they became contagious before pocks appeared Two patterns of occurrence: Cities: endemic Regularly found, always cases of pox but at low level Rural areas: epidemic Settlements were smaller Spread to those who never had it and either kill or give immunity The disease would have no one else to attack and would die out First disease to have an immunization procedure developed for it Comes from optimism of stopping the problem before it becomes a problem Before small pox vaccination was the immunization Variolation [inoculation with variola virus] Introduce the variola virus without giving disease Two methods of variolation: Inhalation of scabs (aged virus) Collect scrabs that fall off of skin, keep for several weeks, and then introduce to body – gives less intense disease In asian countries, the scabs were ground up and blown into nose into respiratory
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Inoculation through skin (fresh virus) Use scalpel to make incision into pustule, use same scalpel to cut patient I noculation comes from insertion Now the word means any type of shot Variolation has a natural mortality of 1-2% Middle east, Northern Turkey, into Africa European physicians spoke about it but didn’t think it would work because the people using it were from different climate etc Nobody wanted to be the person to try it and have it fail London tests, 1721: Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (English; 1689-1762) (wife of nobleman) Her husband was ambassador in Turkey Became aware of inoculating children, she had her son inoclated Return to London and spoke to physicians about using practice Had Sloan to inoculate her second child Next, experiments performed on prisoners that had not had pox These prisoners were fine After, same procedure performed on orphans all for Princess Caroline Once it was accepted by royal family, everyone jumped on the bandwagon Boston tests, 1721: Cotton Mather (American; 1663-1728) and Zabdiel Boylston (American; 1679- 1766) Mather one of most prominent ministers in New England, definitive text on witchcraft Dabbled in medicine, wrote first textbook of medicine, well reasoned with germ theory minus evidence, and researched variolation Given a slave in 1716 as gratitude for what he’d done Didn’t want to have slave if he had small pox, had inoculation for
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Smallpox - 2Smallpox: Dates back to the ancient Egyptian...

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