Yellow Fever - Yellow Fever originated in Africa brought to New World in 1600s(virus that attacks liver yellow bile in blood noticeable yellowing

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Yellow Fever: originated in Africa, brought to New World in 1600s (virus that attacks liver yellow bile in blood noticeable yellowing of skin) internal bleeding causes ‘black vomit’-one of the worst epidemic diseases in America from late 1600s late 1800s Transmission: • Person to person by Aedes aegypti mosquito with 2 patterns depending on climate: o Tropical: endemic; low mortality o Temperate: epidemic (in warm weather months); high mortality • In America, yellow fever only hit seaports involved in trade with West Indies Sparked debate between miasmatists and contagionists: • YF came from ships from West Indies; therefore contagious (required people to spread) o Cities tried to prevent with quarantine (‘yellow jack’ flag aboard ships with death/recovery) Quarantine failed…YF not contagious • 1793 epidemic in Philadelphia=miasma vs contagion o Matthew Carey, A Short Account of the Malignant Fever, Lately Prevalent in Phildelphia (1794) Statistics and observations (garlic and smoking tobacco as prevention to neutralize miasma) o Benjamin Rush (American; 1745-1813) dominated debate Against contagion: quarantine failed, people avoid sick still get it, increased contact doesn’t increase risk, no cases among nurses/doctors at hospitals, YF disappeared after cool weather/rain o Stubbins Ffirth experiments Demonstrated YF cannot be contracted by injecting bodily fluids of sick into self o Remaining enigma for YF=zymotic theory Ships from Indies bring ‘yellow fever ferment’(yeast) +miasma(sugar)=alcohol (YF poison) Thus two kinds of disease Contagious: spread person to person by means identified by Fracastoro Non-contagious: acquired by inhaling poison from the atmosphere all people dangerous; either release poison itself or ‘ferment’ Therefore 2 ways to stop epidemics: eliminate ferment: quarantine eliminate miasma: sanitation Smallpox: 1700s (only infectious disease to be eradicated 1980) Cause: variola virus lifelong immunity after infection very contagious! 2 patterns of occurrence o Cities: endemic o Rural: epidemic; community would die out until new susceptible population 1 st disease to have an IMMUNIZATION procedure developed for it Contributed to new optimism of prevention Variolation (inoculation with variola virus) 1700’s o Inhalation of scabs (aged virus), crust from skin o Inoculation through skin (fresh virus) London tests; 1721 o Lady Mary Whortley Montagu (English 1689-1762) Had her children inoculated in Turkey and it was a success! Had her children inoculated in Turkey and it was a success!...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 06/03/2010 for the course BIOL BIO 101 taught by Professor Drumheller during the Spring '10 term at University of Washington.

Page1 / 6

Yellow Fever - Yellow Fever originated in Africa brought to New World in 1600s(virus that attacks liver yellow bile in blood noticeable yellowing

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online