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Unformatted text preview: Yellow Fever: originated in Africa, brought to New World in 1600s (virus that attacks liver yellow bile in blood noticeable yellowing of skin) internal bleeding causes ‘black vomit’-one of the worst epidemic diseases in America from late 1600s late 1800s Transmission: • Person to person by Aedes aegypti mosquito with 2 patterns depending on climate: o Tropical: endemic; low mortality o Temperate: epidemic (in warm weather months); high mortality • In America, yellow fever only hit seaports involved in trade with West Indies Sparked debate between miasmatists and contagionists: • YF came from ships from West Indies; therefore contagious (required people to spread) o Cities tried to prevent with quarantine (‘yellow jack’ flag aboard ships with death/recovery) Quarantine failed…YF not contagious • 1793 epidemic in Philadelphia=miasma vs contagion o Matthew Carey, A Short Account of the Malignant Fever, Lately Prevalent in Phildelphia (1794) Statistics and observations (garlic and smoking tobacco as prevention to neutralize miasma) o Benjamin Rush (American; 1745-1813) dominated debate Against contagion: quarantine failed, people avoid sick still get it, increased contact doesn’t increase risk, no cases among nurses/doctors at hospitals, YF disappeared after cool weather/rain o Stubbins Ffirth experiments Demonstrated YF cannot be contracted by injecting bodily fluids of sick into self o Remaining enigma for YF=zymotic theory Ships from Indies bring ‘yellow fever ferment’(yeast) +miasma(sugar)=alcohol (YF poison) Thus two kinds of disease Contagious: spread person to person by means identified by Fracastoro Non-contagious: acquired by inhaling poison from the atmosphere all people dangerous; either release poison itself or ‘ferment’ Therefore 2 ways to stop epidemics: eliminate ferment: quarantine eliminate miasma: sanitation Smallpox: 1700s (only infectious disease to be eradicated 1980) Cause: variola virus lifelong immunity after infection very contagious! 2 patterns of occurrence o Cities: endemic o Rural: epidemic; community would die out until new susceptible population 1 st disease to have an IMMUNIZATION procedure developed for it Contributed to new optimism of prevention Variolation (inoculation with variola virus) 1700’s o Inhalation of scabs (aged virus), crust from skin o Inoculation through skin (fresh virus) London tests; 1721 o Lady Mary Whortley Montagu (English 1689-1762) Had her children inoculated in Turkey and it was a success! Had her children inoculated in Turkey and it was a success!...
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This note was uploaded on 06/03/2010 for the course BIOL BIO 101 taught by Professor Drumheller during the Spring '10 term at University of Washington.
- Spring '10