LECTURE_6_10_2 - Review •  Fat - most efficient...

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Unformatted text preview: Review •  Fat - most efficient energy storage •  Hydrolysis of fat –  Hormone regulated •  Synthesis of Triacylglycerol •  Phospholipids –  Glycerol backbone –  Functions –  Synthesis •  Oxidation of fatty acids –  Activation and transport –  O, H, O, T •  Synthesis of fatty acids –  C, R, D, R –  Multienzyme complex –  C16 final product •  Sphingolipids –  –  –  –  Sphingosine backbone Synthesis Functions Sphingolipidoses •  Regulation of synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids 1 LIVER CELL 2 1 Two forms of ACC ACC1 - makes malonyl CoA for fatty acid synthesis ACC2 - makes malonyl CoA to inhibit CAT1 ACC2-/- ACC2-/- mice oxidize fatty acids even while they are making them. 3 4 2 (Based on what you’ve learned so far) Which ONE of the following ought to be abundant in liver but not in muscle? a.  b.  c.  d.  e.  Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase. Hexokinase. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Carnitine acyl transferase Pyruvate dehydrogenase. 5 6 3 •  The role of PEP-CK in liver is well understood, but its role in other tissues is not. •  Hanson and colleagues overexpressed PEP-CK in muscle. •  Hakimi et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282:32844 (2007). 7 PEP carboxykinase muscle overexpressor mice are more active than normal mice 8 4 PEP carboxykinase muscle overexpressor mice run a lot farther than normal mice… 9 PEP carboxykinase muscle overexpressor mice live longer and run faster than normal mice 10 5 Review •  •  •  Fat - most efficient energy storage Hydrolysis of fat –  Hormone regulated Oxidation of fatty acids –  Activation and transport –  O, H, O, T •  Synthesis of Triacylglycerol •  Phospholipids –  Glycerol backbone –  Functions –  Synthesis •  Synthesis of fatty acids –  C, R, D, R –  Multienzyme complex –  C16 final product •  Sphingolipids –  –  –  –  Sphingosine backbone Synthesis Functions Sphingolipidoses •  Regulation of synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids 11 12 6 Non-Polar lipid: - Triacylglycerol Polar lipids: - Phospholipids - Sphingolipids “Phospholipid bilayer” 13 Phosphoslipids as Regulators of Enzymes: 14 7 Phospholipids as surfactants: 80% of lipid in extracellular fluid of lungs is Dipalmitoyl Phosphatidyl Choline Also called “DPL” (dipalmitoyl lecithin) Before lung matures mostly sphingomyelin. Lots of glycogen is stored. At 32-34 weeks glycogen DPL Respiratory Distress Syndrome - premature babies - chemotherapy 15 Biosynthesis of Phospholipids 16 8 17 Phospholipids are broken down by Phospholipases. 18 9 Non-Polar lipid: - Triacylglycerol Polar lipids: - Phospholipids - Sphingolipids “Phospholipid bilayer” 19 20 10 21 22 11 Usually glucose or galactose 23 M = 1 NAN D = 2 NAN T = 3 NAN 24 12 Significance of Glycosphingolipids 25 Blood Group Antigens are Glycosphingolipids: 26 13 Significance of Glycosphingolipids and Gangliosides 27 28 14 Sphingolipidosis:  deficiency in ability to degrade sphingolipids 29 30 15 ...
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