30 - Wednesday September 30th 2009 Biochemistry 405...

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1 Wednesday, September 30 th , 2009 Biochemistry 405 – Lecture #01 Kane Hall 130 10:30- 11:20 am Lecturer: Wim Hol Slide Set #1 The slides shown during the lectures present the prime material to be studied. The handout shows which pages in the book “Fundamentals of Biochemistry” Voet, Voet and Pratt (2 nd rd Editions) contain background information on the material discussed in the lectures. Topics not covered at all in the slides of a lecture need not to be studied in the book. BC405
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2 Biochemistry One of many possible definitions: “Structure, function, interactions and reactions of biological molecules” Outline of this lecture: - Basic Concepts: 1. Cells and Organelles 2. Biopolymers - Protein Structure - Nucleic Acids - Polysaccharides 3. Metabolism - Metabolic pathways 4. Thermodynamics Phylogenetic tree of living organisms Three domains of life: Eukaryotes (eukarya ) Archea – also called archaebacteria Bacteria – also called eubacteria Both archae and bacteria are called prokaryotes (prokarya)
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3 Schematic Diagrams of Prokaryotic Cells Bacterial Cells are Simpler than Eukaryotic cells They are generally not “compartmentalized”. Pictoral model of E. coli molecular composition VVP-2/e, Fig. 1-6 Yet, even bacterial cells are not exactly simple
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4 Schematic Diagram of a Eukaryotic cell: a Plant Cell VV (NOT VVP), f1.9, 3 rd ed. A eukaryotic cell is highly organized – and “compartmentalized” The different compartments are called organelles: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Nucleus, etc (Only these three you need to know for the exam) Contains chromosomal DNA Photosynthesis The size of a eukaryotic cell ranges typically between 10 to 100 μ m VVP 2/e – Fig 1-8. Schematic Diagram of a Eukaryotic cell: an Animal Cell Electron micrographs of organelles Organelles differ in major ways from the cytoplasm, e.g. in: 1. Protein content 2. DNA & RNA content 3. Cofactors 4. pH (For the exam, you only need to know the nucleus, the mitochondrion and the lysosome) Energy generation Protein Degradation
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5 Bannister et al., Parasitology Today, 16:427 (2000), The blood stream form of the malaria parasite A unicellular eukaryote Many highly specialized organelles: micronemes, rhoptries, etc (For the exam, you only need to know that the rhoptry and microneme contain proteins which are essential for host cell invasion by the malaria parasite) Malaria kills about 1 million people, mainly children, annually. (That is about two children per minute) Provides proteins for red blood cell entry Provides proteins for red blood cell entry Lipids are critical for cell wall formation An example of a “Glycerophospholipid” Three-carbon glycerol backbone + two fatty acid tails + phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidyl choline Three-carbon glycerol backbone Two fatty acids
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6 Lipids form Biological Membranes Membranes are crucial for surrounding “compartments” like: the cell itself; mitochondria;
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30 - Wednesday September 30th 2009 Biochemistry 405...

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