ch13_2302 - Volcanic and Tectonic Landforms Landforms...

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Volcanic and Tectonic Landforms Landforms Volcanic Activity Landforms of Tectonic Activity Earthquakes
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landforms reflect a balance between endogenic internal Earth forces that bring fresh rock to the surface ( initial landform ) and exogenic denudation processes that remove and transport mineral matter from fresh rock masses ( sequential landform ) Landforms Figure 13.1, p. 453
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Volcanic Activity a volcano is a conical or dome-shaped initial landform built by the emission of lava, tephra and its contained gases from a constricted vent in the Earth’s surface Figure 13.2, p. 453 Tephra - Solid matter that is ejected into the air by an erupting volcano.
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Volcanic Activity Stratovolcanoes are built of layers of felsic lava and volcanic ash felsic lava is viscous and it builds a tall, steep conical form felsic magma can contain gases under high pressure, so felsic eruptions are often explosive Figure 13.2, p. 453
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Mt. Rainier, Washington
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Photo of Mount Ngauruhoe, a stratovolcano on the North Island of New Zealand.
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Stromboli stratovolcano, Eolian Islands, Italy. Perhaps the most famous of all,- Vesuvius volcano near Naples, Italy. Before the Plinian eruption in 79 AD the volcano was considerably higher and had a more typical "look" of a stratovolcano.
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one of the most catastrophic of natural phenomena is a volcanic explosion so violent that it destroys the entire central portion of the volcano vast quantities of ash and dust are emitted and fill the atmosphere for many hundreds of square kilometers around the volcano only a great central depression, named a caldera , remains after the explosion Volcanic Activity
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Calderas
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Volcanic Activity mafic lava (basalt) typically has a low viscosity and holds little gas as a result, eruptions
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ch13_2302 - Volcanic and Tectonic Landforms Landforms...

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