CEE 110 -- Federal Acts Overview

CEE 110 -- Federal Acts Overview - CEE 110 Federal Act and...

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1 CEE 110 Federal Act and Policy Summary Sheet Clean Water Act Year of Passage : 1972 and amended several times Agency that Administers Act : Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Much of the following information comes from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clean_Water_Act , with slight editing, and also from http://www.epa.gov/watertrain/cwa/ Intent of Act : The act established the goals of eliminating releases to water of high amounts of toxic substances , eliminating additional water pollution by 1985, and ensuring that surface waters would meet standards necessary for human sports and recreation by 1983. The Act governs discharges to "navigable waters." In Rapanos v. United States [2] , the Supreme Court clarified that the term "waters of the United States" "includes only those relatively permanent, standing or continuously flowing bodies of water 'forming geographic features' that are described in ordinary parlance as 'streams[,] . .. oceans, rivers, [and] lakes.'" Previously, government regulations had defined "waters of the United States" to include water features such as intermittent streams , playa lakes , prairie potholes , sloughs and wetlands . [5] Impact on Land Development : The 1972 act introduced a permit system for regulating point sources of pollution. Point sources include: industrial facilities (including manufacturing , mining , oil and gas extraction, and service industries ) municipal governments and other government facilities (such as military bases ), and some agricultural facilities, such as animal feedlots . Point sources may not discharge pollutants to surface waters without a permit from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) . This system is managed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in partnership with state environmental agencies. The NPDES permit program is authorized by CWA section 402. [27] The initial permits issued in the 1970s and early 1980s focused on Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTWs) and industrial wastewater—typically "process" wastewater and cooling water where applicable, and in some cases, industrial stormwater. The 1987 WQA expanded the program to cover stormwater discharges explicitly, both from municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4) and industrial sources. [28] The MS4 NPDES permits require regulated municipalities to use Best Management Practices to reduce pollutants to the "Maximum Extent Practicable." Non-stormwater permits typically include numeric
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2 effluent limitations for specific pollutants. Facilities must periodically monitor their effluent (i.e. collect and analyze wastewater samples), and submit Discharge Monitoring Reports to the appropriate agency, to demonstrate compliance. Stormwater permits typically require facilities to prepare a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan and implement best management practices, but do not specify numeric effluent limits and may not include regular monitoring requirements. Some permits cover both stormwater and non-stormwater discharges. NPDES permits must be
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CEE 110 -- Federal Acts Overview - CEE 110 Federal Act and...

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