Week 3-2 Darwin and evolution

Week 3-2 Darwin and evolution - Chapter 17 Darwin and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17 Darwin and Evolution Darwin and Darwin Evolution 2 Outline History of Evolutionary Thought Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Ÿ Earth very old Ÿ Descend with change from a common ancestor Ÿ Adaptation to a changing environment The Evidence of Evolution Ÿ Fossil Ÿ Biogeographical (địa lý sinh vật học) Ÿ Anatomical (Giải phẫu học) Ÿ Biochemical (Sinh hóa học) Variation in a Population 3 Why are there so many species? (biodiversity) Evolution process Artificial Selection of Animals 5 Artificial Selection of Plants 6 Charles Darwin at 31 7 Darwin and Darwin Evolution 8 History of Evolutionary Thought Prior to Darwin ŸView of nature determined by deep-seated beliefs ŸBiology thought had slowly begun to accept - Various ideas of evolution - Similarities between living things reflect recent common ancestry - Dissimilarities between living things reflect ancient common ancestry Evolutionary Thought before Darwin 9 Giraffe’s addaption Galápagos Tortoises, Geochelone 10 Galápagos Finches 11 Darwin and Darwin Evolution 12 Galápagos Islands Tortoises ŸDarwin observed tortoise neck length varied from island to island ŸProposed that speciation on islands correlated with a difference in vegetation Finches ŸDarwin observed many different species of finches on various islands ŸSpeculated they could have descended from a single pair of mainland finch Darwin and Darwin Evolution 13 Natural Selection and Adaptation Individuals have heritable variations Some individuals have adaptive characteristics ŸEnables increased survival and reproduction ŸIncreasing proportion of succeeding generations will have these characteristics Populations become adapted to their local environment through change in individuals Darwin and Darwin Evolution 14 Organisms Differ in Fitness Fitness is the relative reproductive success of an individual ŸThe most-fit individuals in a population capture a disproportionate share of goodies ŸInteractions with the environment determine which individuals reproduce the most Adaptation ŸChanges that help a species become more suited to its environment ŸProduct of natural selection The Evidence of Evolution: Fossil Darwin and Darwin Evolution 15 Fossils 16 The Evidence of Evolution: Anatomical Vertebrate forelimbs (chân trước): Darwin and Darwin Evolution 17 ŸHomologous - All contain the same sets of bones in similar ways ŸModified extensively to meet various adaptive needs ŸDarwin interpreted this as support for a hypothesis of common descent Embryological development ŸAll vertebrate embryos have: ŸA postanal tail (di tích đuôi) and ŸPaired pharyngeal (gill) pouches (túi hầu) Significance of Homologous Structures 18 Xương cánh Xương trụ Xương quay Xương bàn tay Xương ngón (đốt) Significance of Developmental Similarities19 Kỳ nhông The Evidence of Evolution: Biogeography Darwin and Darwin Evolution 20 Biogeographical ŸDistributions of plants and animals across earth ŸConsistent with origin in one locale and then spread to accessible regions Continental Drift Darwin and Darwin Evolution 21 Kỷ phấn trắng Biogeography Biogeography is the study of the distribution over of biodiversity space and time. It aims to reveal where organisms live, at what abundance 22 Formation of Sedimentary Rock 23 Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (igneous and metamorphic rock ) The Evidence of Evolution: Biochemical Evidence Almost all living organisms: Darwin and Darwin Evolution 24 ŸUse the same basic biochemical molecules ŸUtilize same DNA triplet code ŸUtilize same 20 amino acids in their proteins DNA base-sequence differences: ŸWhen very similar, suggest recent common descent ŸWhen more different, suggest more ancient common descent Significance of Biochemical Differences 25 Darwin and Darwin Evolution 26 Review History of Evolutionary Thought Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Ÿ Earth very old Ÿ Descend with change from a common ancestor Adaptation to a changing environment The Evidence of Evolution Ÿ Fossil Ÿ Biogeographical Ÿ Anatomical Ÿ Biochemical Ending Slide Chapter 17 Darwin and Evolution ...
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