Week 3-3 The Biosphere

Week 3-3 The Biosphere - Chapter 49 The Biosphere The...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 49 The Biosphere The Biosphere The 2 Climate and the Biosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems (hệ sinh thái trên cạn) Ÿ Tundra (lãnh nguyên: Bắc Cực, …) Ÿ Forests Ÿ Shrublands (Shrub: cây bụi) Ÿ Grasslands Ÿ Deserts animal communities ) Outline Ÿ Solar Radiation Ÿ Global Wind Circulation Aquatic Ecosystems (hệ sinh thái dưới nước) Ÿ Lakes Ÿ Estuaries (cửa sông) Ÿ Seashores (bờ biển) Ÿ Oceans Oceans Ÿ Life Zones (as a means of describing areas with similar plant and The Biosphere The 3 Climate and the Biosphere Climate ŸPrevailing weather conditions in a region ŸDetermined primarily by temperature and precipitation ŸInfluenced by a multitude of factors including latitude (vĩ độ), tilt of the earth’s axis, and topography (địa hình) Effects of solar radiation ŸSpherical earth ŸRotation and path of the earth around the sun Distribution of Solar Energy 4 Global Wind Circulation 5 Formation of a Rain Shadow 6 Climate and Biomes 7 Biome: quần xã sinh vật The Biosphere The 8 Tundra Arctic tundra ŸEncircles Earth just south of ice-covered polar seas in Northern Hemisphere ŸCovers 20% of Earth’s land surface ŸTrees are not found in the tundra because growing season is too short - Roots cannot penetrate permafrost The Tundra 9 The Biosphere The 10 Coniferous Forests Taiga typifies coniferous forest with cone-bearing trees ŸTrees well adapted to cold ŸLeaves and bark (vỏ cây) have thick covering ŸNeedle-like leaves can withstand weight of heavy snowfall Temperate Rainforest (Old-Growth Forests) of Pacific Northwest ŸEvergreen forest The Taiga 11 The Biosphere The 12 Temperate Deciduous Forests Found south of taiga in eastern North America, eastern Asia, and much of Europe ŸFour well-defined seasons with long growing seasons ŸTallest trees form a canopy (tán) ŸGround-life is plentiful Deciduous Forest The Biosphere The Temperate Deciduous Forest 14 The Biosphere The 15 Tropical Forests Found in equatorial regions ŸPlentiful rainfall ŸMost animals live in trees - Abundant insect life ŸEpiphytes (thực vật biểu sinh) grow in many areas ŸSoils are nutrient-poor - Rapid recycling of nutrients ŸSwidden agriculture successful but destructive (Shifting cultivation) Levels of Life in a Tropical Rain Forest 16 Liana: dây leo epiiphyte: thực vật biểu sinh Representative Animals of the Tropical Rain Forests of the World 17 Evergreen Forest Swamp (đầm lầy) Forest Mangrove (đước) Forest Limestone (đá vôi) Seasonally Inundated Grassland Wetlands on sand hills Coastal wetlands Small wetlands The Biosphere The 30 Shrublands Tend to occur along coasts that have hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters ŸShrubs adapted to withstand arid conditions ŸDense shrubland in California known as chaparral Shrubland 31 The Biosphere The 32 Grasslands Occur where annual rainfall is greater than 25 cm, but generally insufficient to support trees ŸGrasses well adapted to changing environment ŸTemperate Grasslands ŸSavannas (hoang mạc, thảo nguyên) Temperate Grassland 33 The Savanna 34 The Biosphere The 35 Deserts Usually found at latitudes of about 30o in both in north and south hemispheres ŸDescending winds lack moisture ŸAnnual rainfall less than 25 cm ŸLarge temperature differential between day and night The Desert 36 The Biosphere The 37 Aquatic Ecosystems Lakes ŸBodies of water classified by nutrient status - Oligotrophic - Nutrient-poor - Eutrophic - Nutrient-rich ŸLake Stratification - In temperate zones, deep lakes are stratified in the summer and winter Freshwater and Saltwater Ecosystems 38 Types of Lakes 39 Lake Stratification in a Temperate Region 40 The Biosphere The 41 Aquatic Life Zones Plankton (phiêu sinh) ŸImportant community in fresh water and salt water - Phytoplankton - Algae - Zooplankton - Animals Life Zones ŸLittoral zone - Closest to shore ŸLimnetic zone - Sunlit areas ŸProfundal zone - Below light penetration ŸBenthic zone - Soil-Water interface Zones of a Lake 42 The Biosphere The 43 Coastal Communities Estuaries ŸPartially enclosed bodies of water where fresh water and seawater meet and mix ŸOrganisms must be able to adapt to changing salinity ŸEstimated over half of all marine fishes require development in estuaries Estuary Structure and Function 44 Types of Estuaries 45 The Biosphere The 46 Seashores Littoral zone lies between high and low water marks ŸRocky Shores - Many attached organisms - Littoral zone of rocky beach divided into subzones ŸSandy beach - No attachment sites available - Nearly all permanent residents dwell underground Seacoasts 47 The Biosphere The 50 Oceans Major ocean currents move heat from the equator to cooler parts of the biosphere ŸGulf Stream warms east coast of North America and parts of Europe ŸEl Nino Southern Oscillation - Cold upwelling off west coast of South America subsides Ocean Currents 51 The Biosphere The 52 Oceans Pelagic Division ŸNeritic Province - High concentration of organisms due to sunlight penetration and supply of inorganic nutrients - Coral Reefs ŸOceanic Province - Lacks inorganic nutrients - Does not have high concentration of phytoplankton The Biosphere The 53 Oceans Benthic Division ŸIncludes organisms that live on or in: - Continental Shelf (sublittoral zone) - Continental Slope (bathyal zone) - Abyssal Plain (Abyssal zone) w Interrupted by hydrothermal vents ŸOrganisms are dependent on debris sinking down Organisms from above Ocean Inhabitants 54 The Biosphere The 55 Review Climate and the Biosphere Terrestrial Ecosystems Ÿ Tundra Ÿ Forests Ÿ Shrublands Ÿ Grasslands Ÿ Deserts Ÿ Life Zones Ÿ Lakes Ÿ Estuaries Ÿ Seashores Ÿ Oceans Ÿ Solar Radiation Ÿ Global Wind Circulation Aquatic Ecosystems Ending Slide Chapter 49 The Biosphere ...
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