Strong Inference: Devise multiple hypothesis, design experiment to eliminate the one or more of
hypotheses, carry out the experiment in a manner that gives u clean results, repeat, refine hypotheses,
disproof is more reliable than proof. Mad cow dx: prions infectious proteins interaction between prion and
normal protein to misfold, affects Cns, Meiosis: allele- diff versions of the same gene. Diploid-two alleles
of each gene. Unreplicated and replicated chromosome are each considered single chromosome, even
though replicated chr comprises of two. Sister chrom are not homologous, they are replicated Dna. Only
diploid cells can go thru meiosis. Meiosis= haploid. Crossing over: Dna cut and relegated at the same spot,
if didn’t you only pass dna from a single parent. IA: between the chro. U need 2. Pros of sex: replaces
damaged Dna, Gv. Cons:2 indv. Hard 2 find mate. Dx/competition. Plants: haploid die/damaged dna.
Fern-diploid can func/diploid. Snails: parasite exists, sex happens. Mistakes in sex: for a gamete to get one
set of chr, 2 steps in meiosis must occur perfectly. Each pair of chr must split/1
meiotic division, so that
only one homolog move to the same pole of the parent cell. Inheritance between genes inherited from
parents. Traits disappear and reappear. Genotype: the gene, dna of the indv. Phenotype: traits coded by
Dna. Recessive allele:don’t show their phenotype when a dom allele is present. SC-recessive, the
inheritance of genes on diff chro is independent. Recombinant genes: crossing over rarely occurs between
adjacent loci, so recom are rare. Co always occurs betw distant loci, so recom are frequent. Greatest no is
50%should be ½ parental or half or less recomb. Codominance: bothe alleles are fully expressed:AB,
incomplete dominance: give rise to blending. The x chro has many genes the y chro has only one. Why
more males? Sperm travels faster. Sex linked traits are genes located on the x chro. Females x inactivated.
Only the egg provides mtDNA to the off. Ind A: when hom pairs line up randomly at metaphase plate
during metaphase I. CO can occur w/o any effect on thegen if the allel wer the same. Fews dx are caused
by mutation on mtdna. Caveat in twin stud: identical twins, # of stud. Voles: oxytocin: water imbalance,
contraction of womb and milk production encourage bonding. Block receptors: nonmonogamous.
Maniplulate the prod of the gen. fetal expo can decreased birth weight, inc antisocial behavior. If homo
didn’t occur then co wouldn’t oc and the daug cels would be dip, not hap. Diff bet sex linked-in and
mtdna=hap, f=dip for x, linked traits are really close, so recomv can’t occur between them. If
none of the hom chr separate at the anaphase I, but their sist chr separate during ana II , the = diploid.
Homolog= sim in shape and size and gen cont, carries the same gene for the same traits, but the versions