Lecture10 - Christie Hua LECTURE 10 THE ROMAN EMPIRE Late...

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Christie Hua 5/5/09 LECTURE 10 – THE ROMAN EMPIRE Late Republic (133-31 BCE) Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44) Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43) Octavian (63 BCE – 14 CE) = Augustus Princeps precipitate Res Gestae Legion Limes Julio-Claudians Auxiliary Flavians castra “Five Good Emperors” I. The World in 200 BCE a. Alexander’s successors, Parthians, Bactria, Han Empire, Mauryan Empire, Meroe, Carthage, Rome, European chiefdoms II. The World in 133 BCE a. Alexander’s successors, Roman Republic, Meroe, Parthians, Bactria i. Biggest empires = Roman Republic, Han Empire III. Rome suffering internal domestic problems a. Unrest in countryside, split between wealthy and poor b. Poor folks do fighting but don’t get much out of it IV. The Late Republic (133-31) a. “the Roman revolution” i. period when Rome changed from oligarchic republic to system that depended on sole power of emperor 1. emperor maintained façade of traditional government b. Armies and commanders i. Soldiers no longer loyal to state but to men in battle c. civil war i. Roman-on-Roman violence V. latifundia a. big plantations in countryside, wealthy landowners concentrating land b. more recent scholarship suggests this isn’t true i. but no new mechanism to explain what was happening ii. Rome suffering from urban unemployment 1. social problems for families with soldiers
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a. soldiers away too long VI. Tiberius Gracchus (133 BCE) tribune Gaius Gracchus (122 BCE) a. try to take steps to fix issues b. Graccus brothers = reformers who held the office of TRIBUNE a. Great crusading heroes? i. Reform land laws ii. Maybe too idealistic view iii. Members of senatorial elite; had own interests iv. Make sure opponents did not succeed v. Need for stability and own power 1. subscribe series of laws a. redistribute land b. limits for use of public land c. can’t accumlate too much of middle class d. land reform i. unsuccessful reforms ii. Tiberius and followers were killed vi. Gaius tries to also do land reform 1. distribution of free bread a. equivalent of food stamps b. practical reason i. hungry ppl = angry/tend to riot 2; faced senatorial opposition a. beaten to death b. Roman senate increasingly unable to deal with own problems c. Ppl clubbed to death vii. first step to civil war 1. when ppl resort to violence, road is set for civil war VI. Cornela, mother of the Gracchi a. No route to political office on her own b.
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