MidtermStudyGuide1 - Christie Hua 4/27/09 STUDY GUIDE...

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Christie Hua 4/27/09 STUDY GUIDE – MIDTERM 1 – HIST 2A 1. Three challenges a. Translation i. Not always that accurate b. Transmission i. Survived b/c it was copied over and over again ii. people can make up stories, pass them down orally, sometimes only remember specific things 1. ex. Bible a. early books were written centuries after the events described b. preserve only what Israelites came to believe about themselves c. archaeological evidence contradicts biblical account c. biased/supernatural/mythic tendencies i. Pericles – Funeral Oration 1. biased, nationalistic, ad hominem attacks on Spartans 2. trying to convince audience that they’re better than Spartans b/c he wants to justify their battles, honor dead, motivate further military action against Sparta a. not always accurate depiction of what is really going on 1. supernatural/mythic tendencies ex. Satrapi and the God of Death (India) 1. obviously, there's no God of Death in real life 2. simply a myth, can't be taken literally as a true account 2. Mesopotamia/Egypt/Indus Valley a. Writing i. Mesopotamia cuneiform ii. Egypt hieroglyphics iii. Indus Valley pictographic symbols b. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION 1. Thriving Indus River, includes Ganges Valley I. Mohenjo-daro 1. Harappa 1. **similar b/c they all began in tiny smalling villages throughout the river valley 2. grew until they supported a privileged ruling elite 3. advanced drainage system
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4. **DIFFERENT b/c not a centralized monarchy w/ towns and cities connected by ties of trade and alliance 5. possible that religion advanced to belief in single god 6. **SIMILAR b/c based on agriculture I. wheat, barley, rice, peas II. extensive trading network III. primary purpose of writing is to carrry on commercial trnasactions b. trade c. agriculture i. Mesopotamia --> fertile soil, between Tigris and Euphrates 1. large-scale irrigation 2. theocracy 3. mudbrick buildings 4. kings derive power from gods 5. produced textiles, import copper/metals 6. four social groups: elites, dependent commoners, elite commoners, slaves 7. Hammurabi = ruler, Code of Laws a. women have few rights 8. Mesopotamians believed that gods controlled weather 9. polytheism ii. Egypt --> Nile, fertile river 1. difference = gradual/predictable flooding did not need massive state intervention 2. natural barriers for protection (deserts, Mediterranean Sea) unlike Mesopotamia 3. also polytheistic 4. polyglphic wriiting 5. many pharoahs and rulers 1. destroyed in 13 th century BCE by “Sea Peoples” 2. 3.
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MidtermStudyGuide1 - Christie Hua 4/27/09 STUDY GUIDE...

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