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MicroGasesBW2

# MicroGasesBW2 - Microscopic Properties of Gases So far we...

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•1 CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Microscopic 1 Microscopic Properties of Gases • So far we have seen the gas laws. • These came from observations. • In this section we want to look at a theory that explains the gas laws: The kinetic theory of gases or The kinetic molecular theory CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Microscopic 2 Kinetic Theory of Gases: Assumptions 1. A gas is made up of a large number of extremely small particles (molecules or atoms) in constant, random, straight line motion 2. Molecules occupy very little volume (most of the container is free space) 3. Molecules collide with one another and with the walls of the container 4. There are no forces between the molecules 5. Molecules can gain or lose energy on collision but the total energy remains constant

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•2 CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Microscopic 3 Collision between molecules Collision with wall CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Microscopic 4 The theory will give information on the speeds of molecules, the frequency with which they collide, and the distribution of energy It is only useful if it can predict the gas laws
CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Microscopic 5 Suppose you have a gas with N identical molecules of mass m in a container of volume V. Also assume that each molecule has a speed u, but that it can be different for different molecules. Pressure comes from the gas molecules hitting the walls of the container. Hence if we can determine the force with which the molecules hit the wall we can determine the pressure . CHEM 1000 3.0 Gases Microscopic 6 By calculating the force that a molecule exerts on the wall, the number of collisions and averaging the result over the different molecular speeds, one gets: V u Nm 3 1 P 2 = 2 u = the average of the squares of the speeds. where

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MicroGasesBW2 - Microscopic Properties of Gases So far we...

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