Lectures_8 - The Thermal circulation Fig. 7-5, p.174 Scales...

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Fig. 7-5, p.174 The Thermal circulation
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Scales of weather First a bit about different scales of motion in the atmosphere The tiny microscale motions constitute a part of the larger mesoscale motions, which, in turn, are part of the much larger synoptic scale. Notice that as the scale becomes larger, motions observed at the smaller scale are no longer visible. See Figure 7.1
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Fig. 7-1a, p.168
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Fig. 7-1b, p.168
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Fig. 7-1c, p.168
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Table 7-1, p.168
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Fig. 7-2, p.170
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p.171a The formation of clear air turbulence (CAT) along a boundary of increasing wind speed shear. The view of wind is from the side, with a top layer of air moving over a layer below.
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Fig. 7-CO, p.166 Wave clouds, called billow clouds, forming in a region of wind shear.
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p.171b Turbulent eddies forming downwind of a mountain chain in a wind shear zone produce these waves called Kelvin Helmholtz waves. The visible clouds that form are called billow clouds.
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Thermal Circulation Recall P(Z) = P(0) exp (-Z/H) H = RT/g Thermal circulation driven by pressure gradients induced by temperature differences On various scales Land/sea breezes Monsoon Jet Stream Walker circulation/El Nino ENSO Global circulation
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Fig. 7-3a, p.172 We start with isobars parallel to surface and differential heating of the air column Initially the pressure is the same at all points on the surface
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Fig. 7-,3b p.172 With the heating to the south the air column Expands at this location This creates a pressure differential/gradient aloft and thus a force from Hi-> Lo pressure This also reduces the pressure at W and increases it at C since we have subtracted / added mass to the respective columns C W Lo Hi
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Fig. 7-3c, p.172 The circuit is completed by the reverse flow at the surface. So associated with the thermal circulation we have a warm surface low and a cold surface high
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Fig. 7-3, p.172 Summary of development of thermal circulation
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Fig. 7-4a, p.173 Sea/Lake Breeze Cool lake water Warm land surface Convective clouds
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Fig. 7-4b, p.173 Land Breeze Land cools at night Water stays warm Possible convection over lake During the day in winter we get this sort of situation
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Fig. 7-4, p.173
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Fig. 7-6a, p.174 Cold , hi pressure Warmer, lo pressure
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Fig. 7-6b, p.174 Warmer surface, lo-pressure Cooler ocean, hi-pressure
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Fig. 7-7, p.175 Enhanced infrared satellite image with heavy arrows
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Lectures_8 - The Thermal circulation Fig. 7-5, p.174 Scales...

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