INTRODUCTIONOrganizational change is a concept that regularly occurs due to the
nature of today’s business environment. (McNamara, 2007) It is common in business
communications, strategy, management and leadership. (McNamara, 2007) Change
occurs when an organization revolutionizes parts or its entire strategy and/or wants to
change the way it operates. (McNamara, 2007) Thus, it involves the realigning of
organizational processes and operations. In order to remain competitive and successful in
today’s business environment, organizations must continually undergo changes by being
innovative. (McNamara, 2007) Therefore, change plays a major role in the longevity,
maturity, and success of any organization.
In today’s business environment, there are many factors that compel organizations to
change such as globalization of markets and rapidly evolving technology. "Organizations
must change because their environments change,” according to Andrew Sturdy in his
article Management Beneath and Beyond Organizational Change Management:
Exploring Alternatives. (Sturdy, 2003, p. 652) Today, businesses are bombarded by
incredibly high rates of change from a large number of internal and external sources.
(Nadler, 1981) Internal pressures tend to come from top managers and lower-level
employees who push for change. (Goff, 2000) On the other hand, external pressures tend
to arise from changes in the legal, competitive, technological, and economic
environments. (Goff, 2000)People have deep attachments to their organization’s normal
work groups, duties, processes, and operations. (McNamara, 2007) Therefore, every
change in an organization experiences some level or sort of resistance. Change resistance
involves the pessimistic feelings and thoughts about a change(s) in an organization.
(McNamara, 2007) It can result in jeopardizing or experiencing losses in productivity and
profitability in an organization. (Oreg, 2006) Thus, managing and overcoming the
resistance to change in an organization is essential to its survival.
Managing organizational change is the process of planning and implementing change in
organizations in order to minimize employee resistance while maximizing the
effectiveness of the change effort. (Nadler, 1981) It involves promoting the concept of
change in organizations and having the skill to manage and lead change effectively.
(Nadler, 1981) Furthermore, the purpose of this research is to explore the driving forces
and resistance of organizational change and strategies for overcoming the resistance to
change in today’s business environment.
INTERNAL DRIVING FORCES TO CHANGEOrganizational change proposals often
come about as a result of problems faced by an organization. (Varelas, 2005) According
to McNamara (2007), “Change commonly occurs because the organization experiences
some difficulty,” “But sometimes the most constructive change takes place not because
of problems but because of opportunities.” (McNamara, 2007) Internal driving forces or